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Table 3 Daily nutrient and food-group intakes of the Chinese type 2 diabetic adults with and without obesity

From: Diet quality is inversely associated with obesity in Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes

  Total
(n = 211)
Non-obese T2D
(n = 105)
Obese T2D
(n = 106)
P-value P-value adjusted for age and sex
Total energy intake, kcal/day 2024.6 ± 514.6 1877.4 ± 441.3 2154.4 ± 546.0 < 0.001 < 0.001
Protein, % of total energy 19.2 ± 3.0 18.7 ± 2.5 19.6 ± 3.3 0.018 0.023
Carbohydrates, % of total energy 41.8 ± 7.0 42.8 ± 7.0 40.9 ± 6.6 0.035 0.070
Total fat, % of total energy 39.1 ± 5.4 38.7 ± 5.5 39.4 ± 5.3 0.291 0.438
SFA, % of total energy 8.1 ± 1.8 7.9 ± 1.9 8.2 ± 1.7 0.183 0.480
MUFA, % of total energy 15 ± 3.4 14.6 ± 3.6 15.4 ± 3.2 0.089 0.161
PUFA, % of total energy 9.5 ± 3.0 9.5 ± 3.0 9.5 ± 2.8 0.918 0.907
Trans fat, g* 2.1 ± 2.0 2.0 ± 2.0 2.2 ± 2.0 0.644 0.683
Cholesterol, mg* 171.1 ± 50.8 166.1 ± 50.6 176.1 ± 50.8 0.152 0.189
Dietary fiber, g* 6.6 ± 2.6 7.2 ± 2.8 6.0 ± 2.3 0.001 0.002
Vitamin C, mg* 52.8 ± 29.6 58.0 ± 33.2 47.6 ± 24.8 0.010 0.016
Calcium, mg* 283.8 ± 108.1 302.8 ± 103.6 264.9 ± 109.6 0.011 0.023
Phosphorus, mg* 598.4 ± 106.2 605.3 ± 105.8 591.7 ± 106.6 0.354 0.559
Sodium, mg* 1750.5 ± 444.4 1818 ± 440.5 1682.8 ± 440.0 0.026 0.061
Potassium, mg* 1095.1 ± 230.6 1132.5 ± 236.7 1058.0 ± 219.2 0.019 0.027
Iron, mg* 7.3 ± 2.4 7.5 ± 2.5 7.1 ± 2.3 0.228 0.525
Magnesium, mg* 140.0 ± 35.4 147.0 ± 39.1 133.0 ± 29.9 0.004 0.013
Zinc, mg* 5.1 ± 1.0 5.0 ± 0.9 5.2 ± 1.0 0.087 0.167
Refined grains, g* 205.3 ± 75.2 197.5 ± 77.9 213.0 ± 72.0 0.137 0.139
Whole grains, g* 38.2 ± 62.2 43.4 ± 62.6 33.1 ± 61.7 0.227 0.303
Vegetables, g* 96.5 ± 62.5 107.6 ± 71.6 85.4 ± 49.8 0.010 0.014
Fruits and dried fruits, g* 83 ± 49.9 88.5 ± 54.2 77.5 ± 44.9 0.108 0.162
Meat, poultry and organ meat, g* 72.9 ± 32.2 63.6 ± 28.4 82.1 ± 33.3 < 0.001 < 0.001
Fish and seafood, g* 33.5 ± 23 34.3 ± 22.8 32.7 ± 23.4 0.629 0.973
Egg and egg products, g* 11.8 ± 9.7 11.7 ± 9.8 12.0 ± 9.7 0.753 0.880
Milk and dairy products, ml* 20.7 ± 41.7 24.3 ± 43.1 17.1 ± 40.2 0.208 0.208
Fast food, g* 5.3 ± 8.9 5.4 ± 9.0 5.2 ± 8.7 0.881 0.291
Nuts, g* 2.8 ± 5.7 3.6 ± 6.4 2.1 ± 4.7 0.046 0.057
Sugar sweetened beverages, ml* 44.3 ± 67.1 42.3 ± 63.9 46.3 ± 70.4 0.515 0.890
Sweet pastries and desserts, g* 5.3 ± 10.7 4.2 ± 9.9 6.4 ± 11.3 0.135 0.129
Soups, ml* 70.3 ± 74.6 78.1 ± 76.3 62.7 ± 72.4 0.134 0.280
Alcohol, g* 0.6 ± 2.3 0.8 ± 2.5 0.4 ± 2.1 0.303 0.253
Cooking oils and fats, g* 20.0 ± 5.9 19.6 ± 5.1 20.5 ± 6.5 0.242 0.322
  1. Variables are presented as mean ± standard deviation
  2. MUFA: monounsaturated fatty acids, PUFA: polyunsaturated fatty acids, SFA, saturated fatty acids, T2D: type 2 diabetes
  3. *per 1000 kcal−1 day−1