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Table 2 Total and component scores of the diet quality indices of the Chinese type 2 diabetic adults with and without obesity

From: Diet quality is inversely associated with obesity in Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes

Dietary component (score range) All
(n = 211)
Non-obese T2D
(n = 105)
Obese T2D
(n = 106)
P-value P-value adjusted for age and sex
AHEI-2010a
 Total score (0–110) 60.4 ± 12.0 63.1 ± 12.2 57.8 ± 11.3 0.001 < 0.001
 Component scores
  Vegetables (0–10) 4.4 ± 2.0 4.6 ± 2.1 4.2 ± 1.9 0.151 0.113
  Fruits (0–10) 3.2 ± 1.4 3.2 ± 1.4 3.1 ±1.4 0.598 0.625
  Whole grains (0–10) 3.9 ± 4.5 4.5 ± 4.5 3.3 ± 4.4 0.050 0.056
  Sugar-sweetened beverages and fruit juice (0–10) 7.1 ± 4.1 7.4 ± 3.8 6.9 ± 4.3 0.446 0.625
  Nuts and legumes (0–10) 7.3 ± 3.2 7.3 ± 3.1 7.4 ±3.5 0.889 0.536
  Red/processed meat (0–10) 3.1 ± 2.9 3.9 ± 2.8 2.4 ± 2.7 < 0.001 < 0.001
  Trans fat, % of total energy (0–10) 6.2 ± 3.4 6.4 ± 3.1 6.0 ± 3.6 0.373 0.604
  Long-chain omega-3 fats (EPA + DHA) (0–10) 9.2 ± 2.1 9.5 ± 1.5 8.9 ± 2.5 0.027 0.119
  PUFA, % of total energy (0–10) 7.9 ± 2.2 7.9 ± 2.1 7.9 ± 2.2 0.997 0.730
  Sodium (0–10) 5.3 ± 2.9 5.4 ± 3.1 5.1 ± 2.7 0.431 0.439
  Alcohol (0–10) 2.8 ± 1.5 3.0 ± 1.9 2.6 ±1.0 0.087 0.153
DQI-Ia
 Total score (0–94) 53.0 ± 7.5 54.3 ± 7.8 51.7 ± 7.0 0.012 < 0.001
 Component scores
  Variety (0–20) 18.3 ± 1.6 18.6 ± 1.5 17.9 ± 1.6 0.002 0.001
  Adequacy (0–30) 25.6 ± 5.3 25.6 ± 5.7 25.5 ± 5.0 0.882 0.948
  Moderation (0–24) 8.4 ± 4.9 9.3 ± 5.0 7.5 ± 4.6 0.010 0.029
  Overall balance (0–10) 0.7 ± 1.3 0.8 ± 1.4 0.7 ± 1.2 0.576 0.460
DASH scorea
 Total score (8–40) 22.6 ± 5.2 23.5 ±5.4 21.7 ± 4.8 0.016 0.044
 Component scores
  Fruits (1–5) 3.0 ± 1.4 3.0 ±1.4 3.0 ± 1.3 0.962 0.846
  Vegetables (1–5) 3.0 ± 1.4 3.1 ± 1.4 3.0 ± 1.4 0.626 0.638
  Nuts and legumes (1–5) 3.1 ± 1.4 3.0 ±1.4 3.1 ± 1.4 0.530 0.246
  Sodium (1–5) 3.1 ± 1.4 3.2 ± 1.5 3.0 ± 1.4 0.335 0.297
  Red and processed meat (1–5) 3.1 ± 1.4 3.5 ± 1.3 2.6 ± 1.4 < 0.001 < 0.001
  Whole grains (1–5) 2.3 ± 1.6 2.4 ± 1.6 2.1 ± 1.5 0.099 0.123
  Low-fat dairy (1–5) 1.8 ± 1.3 1.9 ± 1.4 1.7 ± 1.3 0.171 0.141
  Sweetened beverages (1–5) 3.5 ± 1.6 3.5 ± 1.6 3.4 ± 1.6 0.617 0.952
  1. Variables are presented as mean ± standard deviation
  2. aA higher total diet quality index score indicates a higher diet quality
  3. AHEI-2010 Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010, DHA docosahexaenoic acid, DASH Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score, DQI-I Diet Quality Index-International, EPA eicosapentaenoic acid, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids