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Table 1 Food groupings used in factor analysis

From: Dietary pattern is associated with obesity in Chinese children and adolescents: data from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS)

Food group Examples of food items
Rice White and brown rice
Wheat noodles Wheat noodles
Wheat flour Wheat flour
Wheat buns, breads Bun, butter bread, salty bread
Cakes, cookies and pastries Cookies, mooncake, fruit cake, chocolate cake, fruit pie
Deep-fried wheat Deep-fried dough stick, deep-fried cake with red bean paste
Corn and coarse grain Corn, corn grits, barley, oats, foxtail millet, sorghum
Starchy roots and tubers Potato, yam, taro, lotus root, water chestnut, cassava
Fresh legumes Soybean sprouts, peas with pod, mung bean sprouts
Dried legumes Soybean flour, dried beans, beans flour, roasted broad bean
Legume products Tofu, tofu products, red/mung bean paste
Nuts and seeds Sesame, sunflower, lotus seeds, peanuts, walnuts, almonds, hazelnuts, pine-nuts, pistachios, cashew nuts
Fresh vegetables, non-leafy Cauliflower, tomatoes, cucumber, zucchini, mushrooms
Fresh vegetables, leafy Spinach, ‘bok choy’, cabbage
Pickled and salted vegetables preserved vegetables, vegetables in soy sauce
Seaweed Fresh or dried seaweed
Fruits Fresh and canned (no added sugar) fruits
Red meat beef, lamb, donkey, rabbit
Pork Pork tenderloin, Pork belly, leg, rib chop
Organ meats Liver, kidney, large intestine, blood
Processed meats Sausages, ham, luncheon meat, dried meat, smoked meat
Poultry and game Chicken, duck, goose
Eggs and eggs and products Whole eggs, yolk, white, preserved eggs
Fish and seafood Fresh- and salt-water fish, dried fish, shellfish
Milk and dairy products Cow milk, goat milk, skim milk, flavored milk, cheese, yogurt
Fast food Onion rings, potato chips, Western-style fast-food, salty snacks
Candy Jelly, jam, chocolate, honey, sugar, candies
Sweetened beverages Fruit or flavored drinks, fruit juice, soft drinks
  1. The traditional Chinese dietary pattern was loaded heavily on rice, red meat, pork, poultry, vegetables (leafy) and fish. The modern dietary pattern was loaded heavily on wheat buns, cakes, legume products, nuts, pickled and salted vegetables, fruit, red meat, processed meats, poultry, eggs, fish, milk and fast food