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Table 1 Dietary daily intake of Vitamin A among Chinese adults aged 18 to 64 years*

From: Dietary vitamin a intake among Chinese adults: findings from CNTCS2015

Variables N % Carotenes (μg/day) Retinol (μg /day) Vitamin A (μg RE/day) Vitamin A (μg RAE/day)
Mean SD Median P Mean SD Median P Mean SD Median P Mean SD Median P
Total 12,246 100.0 2084.7 3061.2 1175.0   133.5 264.4 76.3   480.9 583.5 307.6   307.2 374.3 202.0  
Age
 18–49 years 6875 56.1 2099.2 3092.5 1175.4 0.7079 141.6 281.3 78.0 < 0.0001 491.4 598.1 311.8 0.0485 316.5 389.9 205.7 0.0179
 50–64 years 5371 43.9 2066.0 3021.0 1172.9 123.1 240.6 74.2 467.4 564.1 302.8 295.2 353.0 198.8
Gender
 Male 5710 46.6 2137.7 3132.4 1194.7 0.0975 143.2 279.8 81.4 < 0.0001 499.4 600.4 318.5 < 0.0001 321.3 388.9 211.2 < 0.0001
 Female 6536 53.4 2038.4 2997.2 1158.8 125.0 249.8 72.3 464.7 567.9 298.0 294.8 360.6 195.5
Region 1
 Urban 4781 39.0 2114.9 2985.9 1259.0 0.0001 147.4 268.6 91.2 < 0.0001 499.9 568.0 332.5 < 0.0001 323.6 368.1 224.2 < 0.0001
 Rural 7465 61.0 2065.3 3108.6 1129.8 124.5 261.2 67.7 468.7 593.0 290.5 296.6 377.9 190.4
Region 2§
 East 4659 38.1 1695.4 2827.1 905.4a < 0.0001 149.9 268.4 94.9a < 0.0001 432.4 548.2 277.8a < 0.0001 291.2 361.6 193.1a < 0.0001
 Middle 3239 26.5 1667.0 1911.6 1044.2b 105.2 183.1 70.6b 383.0 372.5 271.4a 244.1 246.6 180.6b
 West 4348 35.5 2812.9 3780.0 1675.6c 136.9 306.2 63.6c 605.8 713.1 383.9b 371.3 449.3 238.2c
Region 3
 North 4713 38.5 1357.7 1758.3 801.7 < 0.0001 108.0 191.4 71.9 < 0.0001 334.3 358.1 238.3 < 0.0001 221.1 246.9 162.2 < 0.0001
 South 7533 61.5 2539.5 3572.6 1494.2 149.4 300.1 78.7 572.6 671.9 365.3 361.0 426.8 234.2
Education level§
 Primary school and below 3104 25.4 1906.0 2702.1 1062.3a < 0.0001 115.4 249.4 61.0a < 0.0001 433.1 519.6 274.8a < 0.0001 274.3 339.6 180.7a < 0.0001
 Junior middle school 4268 34.9 2123.6 3187.4 1199.2b 126.3 256.5 70.7b 480.3 605.4 301.7b 303.3 381.5 197.3b
 Senior middle school and above 4874 39.8 2164.3 3158.3 1226.3b 151.2 279.0 91.2c 511.9 600.4 333.1c 331.5 387.1 225.5c
Income level§
 Low (1sttertile) 4081 33.3 1982.9 2913.0 1113.1a 0.0001 133.5 297.0 65.0a < 0.0001 464.0 585.2 285.8a < 0.0001 298.8 395.5 188.0a < 0.0001
 Middle (2ndtertile) 4079 33.3 2191.6 3172.7 1230.1b 126.1 244.7 73.3b 491.4 589.7 313.2b 308.7 365.9 205.2b
 High (3rdtertile) 4086 33.4 2079.6 3089.4 1198.5b 140.8 248.0 90.0c 487.3 575.4 317.7b 314.0 360.5 214.2c
Ethnic groups§
 Han 11,053 90.3 2078.9 3133.4 1150.0a < 0.0001 134.5 265.1 77.9a < 0.0001 481.0 594.3 305.2a < 0.0001 307.8 378.9 201.0a < 0.0001
 Miao 221 1.8 2855.7 2514.2 2400.0b 107.9 228.8 57.1b 583.8 494.0 471.1b 345.8 322.9 281.1b
 Buyi 182 1.5 3117.7 2132.7 2683.3c 100.5 243.4 51.5c 620.1 476.4 503.9b 360.3 334.0 277.6b
 Man 225 1.8 994.1 1195.6 633.3d 125.8 274.0 71.0a,b 291.5 339.4 211.3c 208.6 291.9 148.4c
 Others 565 4.6 1997.3 2347.8 1351.2a 136.3 264.4 67.4a,b 469.1 482.3 328.0a 302.7 336.1 205.4a
  1. *Mean, standard error, and median were calculated for the values of vitamin A. Significant difference by socio-demographic factors was determined using nonparametric median test
  2. §If the difference was significant among more than two groups, multiple-comparison was further conducted by Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK). The same characters (a,b,c,d) indicated non-significant difference between the two sub-groups, while the different characters indicated significant difference, p < 0.05