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Table 1 Food groups used in the dietary pattern analysis: NHANES 2003-2006a

From: Association of serum vitamin D concentrations with dietary patterns in children and adolescents

Food Groupsb Foods from Food-Frequency
Low-fat dairy 1, 2%, skim, nonfat, and evaporated milk; yogurt/frozen, low-fat cheese,and low-fat sour cream
High-fat dairy Whole milk, cream, ice cream, pudding, cottage cheese, cheese, and sour cream
Dairy alternative Soy, rice, and other milk; non-dairy creamer, and meal replacement beverage
Fish and other seafood Oysters, clams, and shellfish; fish: fillets, sticks, tuna, salmon, and raw fish sushi
Eggs Egg whites, whole egg, egg substitute, and egg salad
Meat Beef, steak, roasts, hamburger, pork, ribs, and ham
Processed Meat Bacon, Canadian bacon, sausage, hot dogs, luncheon meats, liver, and Liverwurst
Poultry Chicken, all types; and turkey
Creamed soup Creamed soups, all types; and chowders
Other soup Broth-based soups and bean soups
Pizza Pizza, all types
Mixed dishes Casseroles, lasagna, macaroni and cheese, and chili
Cereal Oatmeal, grits, and other cooked cereals; and cold cereal, all types
Refined grains English muffin, bagel, roll, cracker, stuffing, cornbread, biscuit, pancake, waffle, pasta, and rice
Whole grains Dark breads and rolls; brown rice, bulgur, cracked wheat and millet; and granola bars
Nuts Peanuts, walnuts, and other nuts; seeds; and nut butters
Legumes Pintos, kidney, blackeyed peas, lima, lentils, refried beans, baked beans, soybeans, and tofu
Starchy vegetables White potatoes, french fries, and potato salad; squash, sweet potatoes, carrots, and yams
Tomatoes Tomatoes, including fresh, tomato juice, and salsa
Cruciferous and green vegetables Spinach, turnip, collard, chard, kale, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, Brussel sprouts, and lettuce
Other vegetables Pickles, green beans, peas, peppers, onion, cucumber, corn, and mixed Vegetables
Fruit Apples, pears, peaches, bananas,melons, strawberries, grapes, pineapple, and dried fruit
Fruit juices Orange juice, grapefruit juice, apple juice, grape juice, and prune juice
Sweets and Snacks Donuts, danish, cookie, brownie, cake, pie, cobbler, popcorn, pretzels, tortilla chips, and candy
Butter and Margarine Butter and margarine, all types
Other fats Olive oil, corn oil, canola oil, salad dressings, mayonnaise, and gravies
Condiments Maple syrup, honey, jam, and jelly
Coffee/Tea Coffee and tea, regular and decaffeinated
Energy drinks Sodas and fruit drinks, including Hi-C, Kool-Aid, lemonade, and cranberry cocktail
Alcohol Beer, wine, wine coolers, hard liquor, and mixed drinks
  1. an = 4404; weighted n = 60,274,698. NHANES 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 were combined into one master database, NHANES 2003–2006
  2. bFoods consumed by survey participants were categorized into 30 food groups based on nutrient profiles or culinary use
  3. cFood consumption data were collected using a 216-item qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaire