Skip to main content

Table 3 Reported daily nutrient intakes and modeled nutrient intakes if eggs were consumed as the main dish at each eating occasion among food insecure non-participants, 2001–2014 (n = 3631)

From: Nutrient intake disparities in the US: modeling the effect of food substitutions

Nutrient Reported daily intake2,3 Modeled daily intakea
Eggs consumed as main dish at breakfast Eggs consumed as main dish at lunch Eggs consumed as main dish at dinner
  Percent not meeting recommendations (95% CI)d
Saturated fatty acidse 55.3 (52.1–58.5) 57.4 (54.0–60.7) 44.2 (41.0–47.4)*** 59.2 (56.1–62.4)
Vitamin Af 67.5 (64.7–70.2) 70.0 (67.4–72.7) 63.3 (60.5–66.2) 61.3 (58.1–64.4)**
Vitamin C 58.7 (55.9–61.4) 59.2 (56.5–61.9) 58.8 (56.0–61.5) 58.9 (56.3–61.6)
Vitamin D 98.0 (97.8–98.2) 98.0 (97.8–98.2) 94.0 (93.8–94.2)** 94.0 (93.8–94.2)**
Vitamin E 94.9 (93.9–95.8) 95.4 (94.4–96.3) 94.1 (93.0–95.1) 94.0 (92.9–95.0)
Thiamin 12.0 (10.5–13.6) 12.3 (10.7–13.8) 11.5 (10.0–13.0) 10.7 (9.2–12.2)
Riboflavin 12.5 (10.9–14.0) 12.8 (11.2–14.3) 11.9 (10.3–13.4) 11.0 (9.5–12.5)
Niacin 10.2 (8.8–11.6) 10.7 (9.3–12.1) 10.6 (9.1–12.1) 10.2 (8.8–11.6)
Vitamin B6 22.6 (20.5–24.6) 24.6 (22.6–26.7) 22.7 (20.8–24.7) 24.8 (22.8–26.8)
Folateg 30.9 (28.4–33.5) 34.8 (32.1–37.5) 31.0 (28.5–33.6) 29.9 (27.4–32.4)
Vitamin B12 13.6 (12.0–15.3) 13.8 (12.1–15.5) 13.4 (11.8–15.0) 12.0 (10.5–13.5)
Calcium 54.7 (52.0–57.4) 55.1 (52.4–57.9) 55.3 (52.6–58.0) 53.6 (50.8–56.3)
Iron 15.7 (14.1–17.4) 15.7 (14.1–17.3) 15.7 (14.1–17.4) 15.3 (13.7–17.0)
Magnesium 83.1 (81.3–84.9) 84.2 (82.4–85.9) 71.8 (69.4–74.2)*** 83.7 (82.0–85.4)
Sodium8 78.7 (76.9–80.5) 78.5 (76.7–80.2) 77.8 (76.0–79.6) 78.5 (76.7–80.3)
Zinc 47.0 (44.7–49.3) 49.7 (47.3–52.0) 48.0 (45.8–50.3) 47.1 (44.8–49.4)
  Mean intake (95% CI)
Energy (kcal) 2171 (2119–2224) 2157 (2104–2210) 2162 (2110–2215) 2167 (2114–2220)
Protein, total (g) 81 (79–83) 80 (78–83) 79 (76–81) 75 (73–78)**
Carbohydrate, total (g) 267 (260–274) 262 (255–269) 267 (260–274) 270 (263–277)
Fatty acids, total (g) 81 (78–83) 81 (78–83) 79 (76–81) 78 (76–81)
Fiber (g) 14 (13–14) 14 (13–14) 14 (13–14) 14 (13–14)
Eicosapentaenoic acid (g) 0.02 (0.02–0.02) 0.02 (0.02–0.02) 0.02 (0.02–0.02) 0.02 (0.02–0.02)
Docosahexaenoic acid (g) 0.07 (0.06–0.08) 0.07 (0.06–0.07) 0.07 (0.07–0.08) 0.08 (0.07–0.08)
α-linolenic acid (g) 1.40 (1.35–1.44) 1.40 (1.35–1.44) 1.38 (1.34–1.43) 1.40 (1.35–1.44)
Vitamin K (μg) 76 (72–79) 76 (72–79) 76 (72–79) 75 (72–79)
Choline (mg) 291 (282–300) 302 (292–312) 324 (314–335)*** 346 (334–358)***
Potassium (mg) 2586 (2555–2618) 2569 (2539–2599) 2566 (2536–2596) 2561 (2530–2592)
α-carotene (μg) 320 (292–349) 282 (260–304) 283 (198–368) 268 (156–379)
β-carotene (μg) 1417 (1331–1504) 1418 (1333–1504) 1411 (1326–1496) 1389 (1306–1472)
β-cryptoxanthin (μg) 84 (78–90) 77 (72–82) 82 (76–87) 80 (75–85)
Lutein and zeaxanthin (μg) 998 (938–1058) 996 (936–1055) 1064 (1004–1125) 1110 (1046–1175)
Lycopene (μg) 7514 (6764–8264) 7403 (6717–8088) 7775 (7005–8546) 7578 (6818–8338)
  1. All estimates adjusted for age, gender, race-ethnicity, education, marital status, household size, health insurance, BMI, income-to-poverty ratio, and whether the dietary recall was on a weekday or weekend
  2. aModeled daily nutrient intake if eggs were consumed as the main dish at each eating occasion
  3. bMean, 2001–2014
  4. cReferent
  5. dDaily nutrient recommendations are Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) unless otherwise specified. National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary reference intakes: The essential guide to nutrient requirements. Jennifer J. Otten, Jennifer Pitzi Hellwig, Linda D. Meyers (eds.). National Academies Press, Washington, DC
  6. eLess than 10% of total energy. US Department of Health and Human Services & US Department of Agriculture. 2015–2020. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. Available at: http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/ (verified 29 March 2016)
  7. fRetinol Activity Equivalent (RAE)
  8. gDietary Folate Equivalent (DFE)
  9. hTolerable upper intake level limit. National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary reference intakes: The essential guide to nutrient requirements. Jennifer J. Otten, Jennifer Pitzi Hellwig, Linda D. Meyers (eds.). National Academies Press, Washington, DC
  10. *Different than food insecure non-participants at P < 0.017 (Bonferroni adjusted for multiple comparisons)
  11. **Different than food insecure non-participants at P < 0.003 (Bonferroni adjusted for multiple comparisons)