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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of participants in federal food assistance programs, food insecure individuals, and other individuals 2001–2014 (n = 34,741)

From: Nutrient intake disparities in the US: modeling the effect of food substitutions

Characteristic n Food insecure, non-participants (n = 3631) WIC participants (n = 636) SNAP participants (n = 4020) Food secure, non-participants (n = 26,454)
   % (95% CI)a
Age (y) 34,741 41.5 (40.5–42.4) 26.3 (25.6–26.9) 42.9 (42.1–43.7) 48.0 (47.5–48.5)
Female 34,741 50.0 (47.8–51.4) 100.0 (NA) 59.0 (57.1–60.9) 50.7 (50.1–51.3)
Race-ethnicity 29,696         
 Non-Hispanic white   56.9 (52.0–61.6) 43.0 (35.4–50.8) 56.7 (50.7–62.4) 82.7 (80.7–84.6)
 Non-Hispanic black   20.3 (17.5–23.5) 28.3 (22.6–34.9) 30.6 (26.3–25.4) 10.0 (8.8–11.3)
 Mexican American   22.8 (19.3–26.8) 28.7 (22.8–35.4) 12.7 (9.7–16.4) 7.3 (6.1–8.6)
Education 34,704         
 Less than high school   33.9 (31.1–36.7) 34.0 (28.8–40.0) 39.5 (37.0–42.1) 13.6 (12.6–14.7)
 High school or equivalent   27.0 (24.8–29.2) 34.1 (26.7–36.5) 28.4 (26.1–31.0) 22.9 (21.8–24.0)
 Some college   31.4 (28.8–34.2) 29.0 (24.2–34.2) 27.1 (25.1–29.1) 31.8 (30.8–32.7)
 College graduate   7.7 (6.4–9.3) 5.6 (3.7–8.5) 5.0 (3.9–6.3) 31.7 (30.1–33.4)
Marital status 34,723         
 Single, never married   25.0 (22.3–27.9) 26.6 (21.6–32.1) 29.5 (26.8–32.4) 16.7 (15.5–18.0)
 Married or living with partner   50.5 (47.6–53.4) 67.8 (61.9–73.2) 39.7 (37.1–42.5) 65.9 (64.6–67.1)
 Widowed, divorced, or
separated
  24.5 (22.4–26.8) 5.7 (3.5–9.0) 30.7 (28.3–33.2) 17.4 (16.7–18.1)
Household size (n) 34,741 3.3 (3.2–3.4) 4.3 (4.2–4.5) 3.6 (3.46–3.78) 2.9 (2.8–2.9)
Health insuranceb 34,620 58.0 (55.3–60.6) 74.6 (69.0–79.4) 67.3 (64.7–70.0) 84.9 (83.9–85.8)
Weight status 34,066         
 Underweight   2.6 (1.9–3.5) 0.9 (0.3–2.5) 2.7 (2.1–3.6) 1.5 (1.3–1.7)
 Normal weight   28.5 (26.2–31.0) 22.9 (18.3–28.2) 25.5 (23.5–27.6) 31.2 (30.2–32.2)
 Overweight   30.0 (27.7–32.4) 32.2 (26.7–38.3) 27.7 (25.7–29.8) 34.6 (33.6–35.6)
 Obese   38.9 (36.4–41.5) 44.0 (38.6–49.7) 44.1 (41.3–46.8) 32.7 (31.6–33.8)
Income-to-poverty ratio 32,247         
 Less than or equal to 0.50   11.3 (9.5–13.3) 19.9 (15.2–25.5) 21.1 (18.9–23.5) 2.3 (1.9–2.7)
 0.51 to 1.00   22.0 (19.6–24.6) 30.9 (26.2–36.1) 40.3 (37.0–43.7) 5.1 (4.7–5.6)
 1.01 to 1.30   19.9 (17.4–22.5) 13.7 (10.3–18.1) 13.8 (12.5–15.3) 5.4 (4.9–6.0)
  > 1.30   46.9 (43.9–50.0) 35.5 (30.0–41.4) 24.7 (21.7–28.1) 87.2 (86.2–88.1)
  1. aDoes not apply to age or household size
  2. bParticipated in health insurance plan at time of survey
  3. Some SNAP participants may have income-to-poverty ratios greater than 1.3 because income test are the primary, but not the only, criterion of program eligibility. For example, Income tests are relaxed if all family members participate in Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) or receive Supplemental Security Income (SSI). Additionally, individuals move in and out of SNAP on a monthly basis whereas income data were collected on an annual basis