Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Change after 16 weeks in metabolic, anthropometric and dietary intake parameters in response to three different methods of nutrition therapy

From: Effects of nutrition therapy on HbA1c and cardiovascular disease risk factors in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes

  Group A (n = 36) Group B (n = 36) Group C (n = 36) P value
HbA1c (%) 0.06 (−0.28 to 0.41) − 0.66 (− 1.03 to − 0.30)*** −0.61 (− 1.0 to − 0.23)** < 0.001
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) − 0.5 (− 1.5 to 0.6) − 0.9 (− 2.0 to 0.2) −0.7 (− 1.8 to 0.4) 0.09
Fasting insulin (pmol/L) − 12 (− 37 to 12) − 18 (− 6 to 1) − 5 (−9 to − 1)* 0.76
HOMA-IR − 2.1 (− 4.4 to 0.3) − 1.9 (− 4.3 to 0.5) − 2.8 (− 5.2 to − 0.3)* 0.51
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) −0.07 (− 0.29 to 0.16) 0.06 (− 0.18 to 0.30) 0.11 (− 0.14 to 0.37) 0.50
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 0.02 (− 0.03 to 0.07) 0.02 (− 0.04 to 0.08) 0.07 (0.01 to 0.13)* 0.28
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) −0.06 (− 0.25 to 0.13) 0.05 (− 0.16 to 0.26) 0.10 (− 0.12 to 0.33) 0.71
Triglycerides (mmol/L) − 0.05 (− 0.27 to 0.17) −0.18 (− 0.41 to 0.06) −0.09 (− 0.33 to 0.16) 0.31
Albumin/creatinine ratio (mg/mmol) 0.50 (− 1.92 to 2.92) − 0.23 (− 2.72 to 2.27) − 0.51 (− 3.08 to 2.07) 0.63
hsCRP (nmol/L) 9.2 (− 30.0 to 48.3) 14.4 (− 27.8 to 56.5) − 6.2 (− 50.6 to 38.9) 0.81
Body weight (kg) −1.11 (− 2.46 to 0.23) − 3.49 (− 4.93 to − 2.05)*** − 2.93 (− 4.45 to − 1.42)*** 0.11
BMI (kg/m2) −0.43 (− 0.92 to 0.06) −1.26 (− 1.78 to − 0.74)*** −1.06 (− 1.61 to − 0.52)*** 0.13
Body fat (%) −0.1 (− 0.9 to 0.6) −1.6 (− 2.4 to − 0.8)*** −1.2 (− 2.0 to − 0.3)** < 0.05
Visceral fat (arbitrary units) 0.01 (− 1.0 to 0.9) −1.2 (− 2.2 to − 0.2)* −0.3 (− 1.3 to 0.8) 0.40
Waist circumference (cm) −0.4 (−2.3 to 1.5) − 5.0 (− 7.0 to − 2.9)*** −2.9 (− 5.0 to − 0.8)** < 0.01
Hip circumference (cm) −1.8 (− 3.6 to − 0.1)* −3.6 (− 5.2 to − 1.7)*** − 2.9 (− 4.8 to − 1.0)** 0.37
Wait/Hip ratio 0.01 (−0.01 to 0.03) − 0.01 (− 0.03 to 0.01) 0.00 (− 0.02 to 0.02) 0.14
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 3 (− 2 to 8) 7 (2 to 13)*** 0 (−6 to 6) < 0.05
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 3 (0 to 7) 1 (− 3 to 5) 3 (−2 to7) 0.41
Daily energy intake (kcal) − 206 (− 394 to − 18)* − 269 (− 469 to − 69)** − 382 (− 586 to − 177)*** 0.40
Carbohydrate intake (g) −33.4 (− 60.4 to − 6.3)* −29.7 (− 58.6 to − 0.9)* −50.3 (− 79.7 to − 20.9)** 0.62
 % Energy from carbohydrates −1.4 (− 4.2 to 1.4) − 0.5 (− 3.5 to 2.6) −2.9 (− 6.0 to 0.3) 0.50
Total fat intake (g) − 9.9 (− 19.8 to − 0.01)* − 18.6 (− 29.2 to − 8.0)*** −16.9 (− 27.7 to − 6.1)** 0.16
 % Energy from total fat −0.2 (− 3.0 to 2.5) −4.2 (− 7.2 to − 1.2)** −1.2 (− 4.3 to 1.9) 0.10
Saturated fat intake (g) −4.3 (− 7.7 to − 0.9)* −10.1 (− 13.7 to − 6.4)*** −9.3 (− 13.1 to − 5.6)*** < 0.05
 % Energy from saturated fat −0.9 (− 2.1 to 0.3) −3.3 (− 4.6 to − 2.1)*** −2.7 (− 4.0 to − 1.3)*** < 0.01
Protein intake (g) 1.3 (− 6.9 to 9.5) 11.0 (2.1 to 19.9)* 0.4 (− 8.8 to 9.7) 0.29
 % Energy from protein 1.6 (− 0.3 to 3.5) 4.8 (2.8 to 6.8)*** 4.2 (2.1 to 6.2)*** < 0.001
Fiber intake (g) 1.6 (− 0.5 to 3.8) 4.0 (1.6 to 6.4)** 2.7 (0.2 to 5.2)* 0.58
  1. Values are mean (95% CI). hsCRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 compared to baseline. p value for group*time effect. Group A: individualized nutrition therapy, Group B: Structured nutrition therapy, Group C: Structured nutrition therapy + weekly phone support