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Table 1 Demographics and baseline characteristics of the study participants

From: Effects of nutrition therapy on HbA1c and cardiovascular disease risk factors in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes

  Group A (n = 36) Group B (n = 36) Group C (n = 36) P value
Age (years) 57 (10) 61 (10) 61 (9) 0.14
Sex (male) 36% 44% 47% 0.62
Diabetes duration (years) 11 (10) 11 (6) 11 (6) 0.98
Number of diabetes medications 1.6 (0.8) 1.9 (0.9) 2.0 (1.1) 0.16
Race
 Asian 0% 3% 6% 0.77
 Black 47% 19% 19% < 0.05
 Hispanic 6% 3% 8% 0.87
 Non-Hispanic white 47% 69% 58% 0.18
 Other/Unreported 0% 6% 8% 0.37
HbA1c (%) 8.15 (1.02) 8.17 (1.21) 7.99 (0.91) 0.44
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) 10.1 (3.9) 9.8 (3.2) 8.7 (1.9) 0.14
Fasting insulin (pmol/L) 133 (88) 151 (108) 150 (110) 0.69
HOMA-IR 9.5 (10.1) 9.4 (7.2) 8.9 (8.6) 0.95
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.09 (1.10) 4.45 (1.27) 4.08 (1.21) 0.38
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.43 (0.95) 2.47 (1.06) 1.95 (0.67) < 0.05
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.18 (0.28) 1.13 (0.23) 1.20 (0.33) 0.51
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.72 (0.76) 1.89 (1.10) 1.79 (1.00) 0.77
Albumin/creatinine ratio (mg/mmol) 2.89 (3.54) 2.66 (3.87) 3.97 (10.58) 0.69
hsCRP (nmol/L) 53.8 (91.9) 41.0 (63.3) 37.2 (34.7) 0.55
Body weight (kg) 101.2 (20.7) 105.4 (25.3) 97.5 (16.3) 0.29
BMI (kg/m2) 35.4 (7.1) 36.4 (9.4) 33.9 (6.1) 0.36
Body fat (%) 41.2 (10.0) 42.5 (8.5) 39.9 (9.3) 0.52
Visceral fat (arbitrary units) 16.2 (5.8) 18.2 (7.1) 16.9 (5.0) 0.44
Waist circumference (cm) 117.1 (13.2) 121.9 (17.3) 117.1 (12.3) 0.11
Hip circumference (cm) 120.7 (15.9) 124.8 (20.3) 118.2 (11.2) 0.18
Wait/hip ratio 0.97 (0.07) 0.98 (0.07) 0.99 (0.08) 0.82
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 134 (15) 131 (18) 132 (14) 0.65
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 72 (10) 72 (8) 71 (9) 0.8
Daily caloric intake (kcal) 1944 (699) 1943 (623) 1993 (813) 0.95
Carbohydrate intake (g) 216.9 (94.7) 206.6 (81.7) 223.3 (89.0) 0.73
Total fat intake (g) 85.1 (37.8) 88.2 (32.9) 82.8 (39.8) 0.83
Saturated fat intake (g) 27.7 (12.3) 28.0 (14.6) 27.4 (16.0) 0.98
Protein intake (g) 82.6 (22.4) 84.3 (24.9) 90.9 (32.5) 0.4
Fiber intake (g) 16.4 (5.4) 19.6 (6.0) 19.0 (6.6) 0.07
  1. Data are mean (SD) or percentage. p values from Fisher’s Exact Test among groups at baseline. Group A: individualized nutrition therapy, Group B: Structured nutrition therapy, Group C: Structured nutrition therapy + weekly phone support