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Table 1 General characteristics of cases and controls stratified by sex, N (%)

From: The relationship between nut intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study

  Men (n = 1875)   Women (n = 894)  
Variable Cases (n = 625) Controls (n = 1250) P-valuea Cases (n = 298) Controls (n = 596) P-valuea
Age (years)b 57.2 ± 9.4 56.6 ± 8.7 0.173 55.3 ± 10.2 54.9 ± 9.8 0.592
Marital status    <.001    <.001
 Married 557(89.1) 1162(93.0)   216(72.5) 493(83.7)  
 Single 66(10.6) 72(5.8)   80(26.9) 98(16.5)  
 Missing 2(0.3) 16(1.2)   2(0.5) 5(0.8)  
Educational level    <.001    <.001
 Less than high school 183(29.2) 175(14.0)   138(46.3) 106(17.8)  
 High school 266(42.6) 329(26.3)   103(34.6) 258(43.3)  
 College or above 176(28.2) 712(57.0)   57(19.1) 223(37.4)  
 Missing 0(0.0) 34(2.7)   0(0.0) 9(1.5)  
Income (1000 won/month)    <.001    <.001
  < 2000 222(35.5) 254(20.3)   99(33.2) 134(22.5)  
 2000–4000 253(40.5) 534(42.7)   134(45.0) 218(36.6)  
  > 4000 150(24.0) 363(29.1)   65(21.8) 184(30.9)  
 Missing 0(0.0) 99(7.9)   0(0.0) 60(10.0)  
Body mass index (kg/m2)    <.001    0.270
  < 25 432(69.1) 734(58.7)   207(69.5) 435(73.0)  
  ≥ 25 192(30.7) 516(41.3)   91(30.5) 161(27.0)  
 Missing 1(0.2) 0(0.0)   0(0.0) 0(0.0)  
Smoking status    0.076    <.001
 Non-smoker 145(23.2) 245(19.6)   264(88.6) 571(95.8)  
 Ex-smoker 303(48.5) 671(53.7)   15(5.0) 16(2.7)  
 Current smoker 177(28.3) 334(26.7)   19(6.4) 9(1.5)  
 Missing 0(0.0) 0(0.0)   0(0.0) 0(0.0)  
Alcohol consumption    0.001    0.187
 Non-drinker 107(17.1) 199(16.0)   172(57.7) 362(60.7)  
 Ex-drinker 103(16.5) 136(10.9)   26(8.7) 33(5.5)  
 Current drinker 415(66.4) 915(73.1)   100(33.6) 201(33.7)  
 Missing 0(0.0) 0(0.0)   0(0.0) 0(0.0)  
Regular exercise    <.001    <.001
 No 387(61.9) 490(39.2)   225(75.5) 262(44.0)  
 Yes 238(38.1) 715(57.2)   73(24.5) 333(55.9)  
 Missing 0(0.0) 45(3.6)   0(0.0) 1(0.1)  
First-degree family history of cancer    0.002    0.141
 No 392(62.7) 686(54.9)   171(57.4) 311(52.2)  
 Yes 233(37.3) 560(44.8)   127(42.6) 285(47.8)  
 Missing 0(0.0) 4(0.3)   0(0.0) 0(0.0)  
First-degree family history of colorectal cancer    <.001    0.926
 No 560(89.6) 1188(95.0)   277(93.0) 555(93.1)  
 Yes 65(10.4) 58(4.6)   21(7.1) 41(6.9)  
 Missing 0(0.0) 4(0.4)   0(0.0) 0(0.0)  
Fruit and vegetable intake g/db 279.4 ± 155.7 350.2 ± 236.7 <.001 343.1 ± 192.8 470.7 ± 383.4 <.001
Red meat intake, g/db 56.0 ± 36.2 64.4 ± 41.9 <.001 40.9 ± 26.9 43.7 ± 28.7 <.001
Energy intake, kcal/db 2127.7 ± 509.1 1731.6 ± 545.8 <.001 1814.4 ± 523.5 1604.6 ± 577.4 <.001
  1. aP-values were calculated by using the chi-square test for categorical variables and linear regression for continues variables. b Mean (s.d.) c Fruit and vegetable intake and red meat intake were adjusted for total individual energy intake by using the residual method