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Table 1 Description of activity categories used during analysis

From: Utility of eButton images for identifying food preparation behaviors and meal-related tasks in adolescents

Activity category Subcategory Description
Browsing: Any apparent moments when the child is actively looking at or for food in various locations. Does not include just walking through kitchen without pausing. Pantry Standing in front of open unit containing dry stored foodstuffs. May be a shelf, walk in pantry, or extra pantry (in garage for example)
Fridge Standing in front of open fridge or freezer
Grocery Store Walking through grocery store and/or looking at items. Includes most types of food markets and specialty food shops, does not include convenience store or gas station
Convenience Store or Café Counter Walking through and/or looking at items in convenience store or café including: gas station, corner store, ice cream shop display, coffee shop display, other sorts of retailers with display cases of food to select. Does not include sit-down restaurants.
Kitchen Counter Standing in front of counter space containing food (i.e.: bowl of fruit on counter)
At School Walking through and/or looking at items in school lunch line
Altering Food on Plate/sAdding Seasoning: Making any alterations to food already plated in front of child such as adding salt or other seasonings, hot sauce, ketchup or other condiments. Also includes removing elements of already plated food such as taking crusts off of bread or removing candies from cereal. Does not include seasoning food while cooking.
Food Media, Recipes, Cookbooks, Photo: Child takes photo of food using any camera device, reads or looks at cookbooks/recipes, visits food/cooking related websites/apps or appears to be watching a cooking-related tv show
Meal Related Tasks: Activities related to meal behaviors that do not include working with food directly Plating Moving food from cooking or serving vessels to one’s own or another’s plate. Includes getting second servings. Does not include a parent or peer putting food onto plate in front of the child.
Getting Drinks Pouring beverage into a cup for oneself or for another. Includes getting up to get the beverage from the kitchen or pouring from a container on the table/in the eating space. Includes retrieving a squeeze pack or bottled drink. Does not include a parent or peer pouring a drink for the child.
Clearing and/or washing dishes Moving used dishes from table or eating space to the kitchen, either directly to the sink or dishwasher or to the counter. Also includes rinsing dishes, washing dishes, and/or moving dishes into the dishwasher as well as wiping down the sink space. Includes putting clean dishes away.
Setting the Table Placing napkins, plates, cutlery, serving vessels or other necessary dining accessories on a table or in eating space.
Prep Work: Includes all preparation of food for eating or cooking. Does not include heating of any food items. Washing and/or Peeling Produce Includes rinsing of all types of fruits and vegetables with water. Also includes peeling produce by hand (i.e. orange) or by peeler (i.e. potatoes).
Cutting Includes all cutting of food products with knives regardless of size or apparent sharpness. Also includes use of graters/mandolins or other sharp cutting equipment.
Cracking Eggs Cracking eggs by hand. Does not include any other activity.
Combining 2+ ingredients by hand Combining of two or more ingredients by hand in a range of settings including preparing cereal (combination of cereal and milk), making sandwiches (combination of bread and other products), mixing together a salad, and all general mixing of ingredients by hand. Includes mixing beverages such as chocolate sauce/powder with milk or hot tea with honey. Does not include placing ingredients in small appliance.
Measuring Demonstrated use of measuring tools including measuring cups, spoons and liquid measures. Does not include rough estimates or “eyeballing”.
Unwrapping Removing packaging from foods. Includes all snacks such as chips, granola bars, ice cream bars etc. Also includes unwrapping raw packaged meat, fruit/vegetables, cheese and other staples before preparation.
Using Blender/Small appliance Placing items in kitchen stand mixer, in bowl fitted with electric mixer, blender, or food processor. Does not include using a small cooking appliance such as a counter grill or electric kettle.
Cooking: Any direct use of heat-based cooking methods. Stove Includes any cooking done on stove top burners including boiling water or helping adult cooking, also includes cooking on stove independently. Does not include using small cooking appliances.
Oven (Baking) Includes any cooking done in oven including baking of cookies/cakes etc., reheating of left-overs or frozen snacks, and any other baking/roasting/broiling.
Microwave Includes any use of microwave for food such as heating water/milk, making microwave popcorn, reheating pre-prepared foods, defrosting foods or cooking foods fully in microwave.
Observing: Any apparent witnessing of food / meal behaviors by adults and/or peers. Does not include adults and/or peers simply being present in kitchen/near food. Does not include observing consumption. Food Selection by Adults Witnessing any adults in household select foods to consume or prepare from home. Includes selection from pantry, fridge, counter and stores.
Food Selection by Peers Witnessing any child (not apparent adult) select foods to consume or prepare from home. Includes selection from pantry, fridge, counter, stores and school.
Any Food Preparation by Adults Any food preparation or cooking undertaken by adults including combining ingredients, using appliances, using heat-application methods. Also includes unwrapping of food products as well as heating of pre-prepared meals and plating of foods. Does not include consumption.
Any Food Preparation by Peers Any food preparation or cooking undertaken by children (not adults) including combining ingredients, using appliances, using heat-application methods. Also includes unwrapping of food as well as heating of pre-prepared meals and plating of foods. Does not include consumption.