Skip to main content

Table 3 Associations between diet-related GHGE and diet quality measures a

From: Greenhouse gas emissions of self-selected diets in the UK and their association with diet quality: is energy under-reporting a problem?

  Model 1 b Model 2 c
  β d SE d P β d SE d P
All (n = 3502) e
 HDI −0.12 0.01 < 0.0001 −0.14 0.01 < 0.0001
 MDS 0.002 0.01 0.86 −0.07 0.02 < 0.0001
 DASH score −0.51 0.04 < 0.0001 −0.42 0.05 < 0.0001
Plausible reporters (n = 1895)
 HDI −0.12 0.01 < 0.0001 −0.14 0.02 < 0.0001
 MDS −0.08 0.02 0.0003 −0.10 0.02 < 0.0001
 DASH score −0.51 0.06 < 0.0001 −0.47 0.06 < 0.0001
Under-reporters (n = 1578)
 HDI −0.15 0.02 < 0.0001 −0.15 0.02 < 0.0001
 MDS 0.01 0.03 0.70 −0.05 0.03 0.06
 DASH score −0.42 0.07 < 0.0001 −0.35 0.08 < 0.0001
  1. DASH Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, EER estimated energy requirement, EI energy intake, GHGE greenhouse gas emissions, HDI healthy diet indicator, MDS Mediterranean diet score
  2. a Plausible reporters were defined as participants with an EI:EER 0.70–1.43; under-reporters were defined as participants with an EI:EER < 0.70
  3. b Adjustment was made for age (years, continuous), sex (male or female), ethnicity (white or nonwhite), socioeconomic classification (higher and managerial occupation, intermediate occupation, routine and manual occupation or other), smoking status (current, former or never), and physical activity (sedentary, low active, active or very active)
  4. c Adjustment was made for variables used in model 1 and EI:EER (continuous)
  5. d Indicating the change of diet quality measures with a 1-kg of carbon dioxide equivalents increase of diet-related GHGE (per day)
  6. e Including over-reporters (n = 29), defined as participants with an EI:EER > 1.43