Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of participants a

From: Greenhouse gas emissions of self-selected diets in the UK and their association with diet quality: is energy under-reporting a problem?

  All (n = 3502) b Plausible reporters (n = 1895) Under-reporters (n = 1578)  
  Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD P c
Age (years) 47.6 17.7 49.9 18.4 45.0 16.2 < 0.0001
Sex (% male) 49.2 44.3 55.3 < 0.0001
Ethnicity (% white) 89.4 90.0 88.4 0.13
Socioeconomic classification (%)     < 0.0001
 Higher and managerial occupation 44.3 46.9 41.4  
 Intermediate occupation 19.7 20.4 18.7  
 Routine and manual occupation 31.7 27.9 36.1  
 Other 4.4 4.8 3.9  
Smoking status (%)     < 0.0001
 Current 21.5 17.9 24.9  
 Former 23.9 23.6 24.6  
 Never 54.7 58.5 50.5  
Physical activity (%)     < 0.0001
 Sedentary 39.1 50.4 25.0  
 Low active 19.4 21.9 16.8  
 Active 19.6 16.9 23.1  
 Very active 21.8 10.7 35.1  
BMI (kg/m2) 27.4 5.4 26.4 4.9 28.6 5.6 < 0.0001
EI (kJ/d) 7653 2375 8611 2119 6410 1847 < 0.0001
EER (kJ/d) 10,699 2673 9788 2340 11,821 2803 < 0.0001
EI:EER 0.74 0.23 0.89 0.14 0.55 0.11 < 0.0001
Diet-related GHGE (kg CO2eq/d) 5.7 2.1 6.3 2.1 5.0 1.8 < 0.0001
HDI 2.3 1.1 2.2 1.2 2.4 1.1 < 0.0001
MDS 4.5 1.7 4.6 1.7 4.3 1.7 < 0.0001
DASH score 24.3 5.2 23.9 5.2 24.7 5.2 < 0.0001
  1. BMI body mass index, CO 2 eq carbon dioxide equivalents, DASH Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, EER estimated energy requirement, EI energy intake, GHGE greenhouse gas emissions, HDI healthy diet indicator, MDS Mediterranean diet score
  2. aPlausible reporters were defined as participants with an EI:EER 0.70–1.43; under-reporters were defined as participants with an EI:EER < 0.70
  3. b Including over-reporters (n = 29), defined as participants with an EI:EER > 1.43
  4. c P values for differences between plausible reporters and under-reporters based on the independent t test for continuous variables and the chi-square test for categorical variables