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Table 3 Socio-demographic, behavioral, nutritional and pubertal β-coefficients from MLRsa with R-square for SAED sub-itemsb in boys

From: Dietary quality linkage to overall competence at school and emotional disturbance in representative Taiwanese young adolescents: dependence on gender, parental characteristics and personal behaviors

Characteristics SAED Z-score
IL RP IB UD PF SM ED SAED total
YHEI-TW −0.05** − 0.02 − 0.01 − 0.01 0.0002 − 0.02 − 0.03 − 0.03
Mother’s education (Ref: Low)
 High (University and above) − 0.36 0.45 0.25 0.01 −0.08 0.25 −0.002 0.01
Household income (Ref: 0–30,000 NTD/month)c
 30,000–50,000 NTD/month − 0.56 − 0.40 − 0.26 0.56 0.35 0.51 − 0.21 − 0.16
 50,000–80,000 NTD/month − 0.92 − 0.78 − 1.13 − 0.30 − 0.06 − 0.28 − 0.91 − 0.89
  > 80,000 NTD/month − 0.67 − 0.37 − 0.55 − 0.15 0.36 − 0.53 − 0.47 − 0.48
Ever smoking (Ref: No)
 Yes 1.87* 0.22 1.88** 1.23 0.38 2.15* 1.65* 1.73*
Read during weekdays (Ref: 0–1 h/day)
 1–3 h/day − 0.26 −0.24 − 0.59 − 0.50 − 0.12 − 0.03 −0.44 − 0.42
  ≥ 3 h/day − 0.22 −0.45 − 0.49 −0.30 0.05 0.11 −0.36 −0.34
Watch TV during weekdays (Ref: 0–1 h/day)
 1–3 h/day 0.31 0.21 −0.40 0.45 0.05 −0.38 0.14 0.11
  ≥ 3 h/day 1.19 0.50 1.02 1.61 2.03** −0.99* 1.53* 1.40
Play computer games during weekdays (Ref: 0–1 h/day)
 1–3 h/day 0.46 0.26 0.72 0.66 0.49 0.55 0.65 0.66
  ≥ 3 h/day 0.002 0.41 0.78 0.08 −0.71 −0.35 0.20 0.17
Moderate or heavy physical activity (Ref: 0–30 min/day)
  ≥ 30 min/day 0.07 0.35 −0.40 0.08 −0.75* −0.37 − 0.14 −0.16
BMI (Ref: Normal weight)
 Underweight 0.08 0.10 −0.19 −0.22 − 0.35 0.35 − 0.11 −0.08
 Overweight −0.15 1.32 0.66 0.46 0.02 0.74 0.46 0.49
 Obesity 0.88 0.50 −0.22 −0.06 −0.15 − 0.38 0.34 0.30
Beard growth (Boys only) (Ref: Not yet)
 At first −0.39 0.004 −0.09 0.07 0.04 −0.03 −0.16 − 0.16
 In progress −0.62 − 0.74 −0.63 − 0.31 −0.43 − 0.34 −0.70 − 0.70
 Completed −0.02 − 0.50 0.55 − 0.70 −0.13 − 0.16 −0.09 − 0.10
R2 with YHEI-TW 0.175 0.049 0.124 0.097 0.083 0.123 0.133 0.134
R2 without YHEI-TW 0.159 0.047 0.124 0.096 0.083 0.119 0.128 0.129
  1. aMLRs, Multiple Linear Regressions
  2. bThe Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance (SAED) sub-items including Inability to learn (IL), Relationship problems (RP), Inappropriate behavior (IB), Unhappiness or depression (UD), Physical symptoms or fears (PF), Socially maladjusted (SM), and Emotional Disturbance (ED)
  3. c1 US dollars = 30 NTD
  4. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001