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Table 2 Student food intakes, physical examination and metabolic analytes by Overall Competence (OCS)

From: Dietary quality linkage to overall competence at school and emotional disturbance in representative Taiwanese young adolescents: dependence on gender, parental characteristics and personal behaviors

   OCSa p value
Overall Z-score ≤ 6 Z-score > 6
Mean (SE) Dietary score (YHEI-TW) 48.1 (0.5) 44.0 (1.1) 48.4 (0.5) <0.001
Mean (SE) Food consumption (times/week)
 Fast foods consumption 1.7 (0.1) 2.3 (0.3) 1.7 (0.1) 0.086
 Fast foods from fast food chain store 0.5 (0.1) 0.7 (0.1) 0.4 (0.1) 0.029
 Fast foods from non-fast food chain store 1.3 (0.1) 1.6 (0.3) 1.2 (0.1) 0.206
 Sugary beverages consumption 5.4 (0.2) 6.5 (0.6) 5.3 (0.2) 0.053
Dairy products consumption
 Milk 3.5 (0.2) 3.0 (0.7) 3.6 (0.2) 0.499
 Flavored milk 0.7 (0.1) 1.4 (0.3) 0.7 (0.1) 0.015
 Yoghurt 0.5 (0.1) 0.7 (0.2) 0.5 (0.1) 0.342
 Cheese 0.9 (0.1) 0.6 (0.1) 0.9 (0.1) 0.035
Development of puberty
Menarche (girls only) (%) 0.929
 Yes 94.0 93.5 94.0  
 No 6.0 6.5 6.0  
Beard growth (boys only) (%) 0.036
 Not yet 33.4 45.3 32.4  
 At first 31.4 36.9 30.9  
 In progress 33.8 13.2 35.4  
 Completed 1.5 4.5 1.2  
Mean (SE) Body compositions
 Height (cm) 161 (0.3) 160 (1.2) 161 (0.3) 0.716
 Weight (kg) 54.2 (0.5) 56.7 (1.7) 54.0 (0.5) 0.146
 Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) 20.8 (0.2) 21.9 (0.5) 20.8 (0.2) 0.046
 Triceps skin fold thickness (TSF, mm) 16.6 (0.4) 17.2 (0.9) 16.6 (0.4) 0.496
 Mid Arm Muscle Circumference (MAMC, cm) 20.0 (0.2) 21.5 (1.2) 19.9 (0.2) 0.221
 waist circumference (WC, cm) 74.2 (0.5) 76.2 (1.2) 74.1 (0.5) 0.114
Mean (SE) Blood pressure (mmHg)
 Systolic blood pressure (SBP) 105 (0.5) 106 (1.5) 105 (0.5) 0.520
 Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 60.5 (0.7) 61.5 (1.2) 60.4 (0.7) 0.301
Mean (SE) Plasma metabolic analytes
 Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 95.4 (0.4) 95.2 (0.9) 95.4 (0.4) 0.835
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 158 (1.4) 155 (3.3) 159 (1.4) 0.191
 Triglycerides (mg/dL) 71.4 (1.8) 78.3 (5.5) 71.0 (1.7) 0.150
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 55.3 (0.7) 50.8 (1.9) 55.6 (0.7) 0.022
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 88.8 (1.2) 87.9 (3.2) 88.8 (1.2) 0.761
 Uric acid (mg/dL) 5.8 (0.1) 6.2 (0.2) 5.74 (0.1) 0.063
  1. aStudents with an OCS Z-score less than or equal to 6 were considered to have unfavorable overall school performance
  2. YHEI-TW, Youth Healthy Eating Index-Taiwan