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Table 1 Basic characteristics of junior high school students by Overall Competence (OCS) (N = 1371)

From: Dietary quality linkage to overall competence at school and emotional disturbance in representative Taiwanese young adolescents: dependence on gender, parental characteristics and personal behaviors

Characteristicsa   OCSb P value
Overall Z-score ≤ 6 Z-score > 6
Participants (%) 1371 (100) 98 (5.9) 1273 (94.1)  
Mean age in years (SE) 13.6 (0.1) 13.3 (0.1) 13.6 (0.1) 0.130
Gender (%) 0.042
 Boys 51.7 61.3 51.1  
 Girls 48.3 38.7 48.9  
Father’s ethnicity (%) 0.777
 Fukienese 76.6 71.9 76.9  
 Hakka 13.0 15.8 12.8  
 Mainlander 8.3 9.2 8.2  
 Indigenes 2.2 3.2 2.1  
Father’s educational level (%) 0.008
 Secondary education and below 40.5 61.9 39.1  
 University and above 59.5 38.1 60.9  
Mother’s educational level (%) 0.018
 Secondary education and below 33.4 47.5 32.5  
 University and above 66.6 52.5 67.5  
Household income (%) <0.001
 0–30,000 NTD/monthc 19.3 34.5 18.4  
 30,000–50,000 NTD/month 21.7 24.1 21.6  
 50,000–80,000 NTD/month 29.8 30.1 29.6  
  > 80,000 NTD/month 29.2 11.2 30.3  
Ever smoking (%) 0.019
 No 89.9 75.5 90.8  
 Yes 10.1 24.5 9.19  
Drinking alcohol (%) 0.730
 No 87.4 85.4 87.6  
 Yes 12.6 14.6 12.4  
Read during weekdays (%) 0.010
 0–1 (h/day) 45.6 67.2 44.3  
 1–3 42.0 30.0 42.8  
  ≥ 3 12.4 2.9 13.0  
Watch TV during weekdays (%) 0.006
 0–1 (h/day) 58.1 33.9 59.7  
 1–3 33.7 53.2 32.5  
  ≥ 3 8.13 12.9 7.8  
Play computer games during weekdays (%) 0.064
 0–1 (h/day) 62.3 48.8 63.2  
 1–3 29.2 37.6 28.7  
  ≥ 3 8.45 13.6 8.1  
Moderate or heavy physical activity (%) 0.734
 0–30 (min/day) 26.0 24.7 26.1  
  ≥ 30 74.0 75.3 73.9  
  1. aCategorical variables are presented as percentage (%), and continuous variables are presented as mean (SE)
  2. bStudents with an OCS Z-score less than or equal to 6 were considered to have unfavorable overall school performance
  3. c1 US dollars = 30 NTD