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Table 4 Associations between adolescents’ cognitive test-performances and nutritional variables or FFQ data at baseline

From: The effects of fatty fish intake on adolescents’ nutritional status and associations with attention performance: results from the FINS-TEENS randomized controlled trial

  Unadjusteda Adjustedb
  Number ß (95% CI) P Number ß (95% CI) P
Omega-3 Indexc 460    367   
 Concentration performance (CP)   0.62 (−1.75, 2.99) 0.61   −1.43 (−4.07, 1.20) 0.29
 Total performance (TN-E)   −0.09 (−5.28, 5.11) 0.97   −3.56 (−9.42, 2.31) 0.23
 Processing speed (TN)   −0.67 (− 6.36, 5.02) 0.82   −2.93 (−9.36, 3.51) 0.37
s-25(OH)D 462    368   
 Concentration performance (CP)   −0.04 (−0.21, 0.14) 0.69   −0.08 (− 0.28, 0.11) 0.41
 Total performance (TN-E)   −0.11 (− 0.50, 0.27) 0.56   −0.18 (0.62, 0.26) 0.43
 Processing speed (TN)   −0.17 (− 0.58, 0.25) 0.44   −0.18 (0.66, 0.31) 0.47
s-Ferritin 459    365   
 Concentration performance (CP)   0.07 (−0.06, 0.20) 0.30   0.08 (−0.08, 0.22) 0.32
 Total performance (TN-E)   0.13 (−0.17, 0.42) 0.40   0.15 (−0.19, 0.49) 0.38
 Processing speed (TN)   0.06 (−0.23, 0.40) 0.60   0.13 (−0.24, 0.50) 0.50
UIC 452    359   
 Concentration performance (CP)   0.04 (−0.01, 0.08) 0.13   0.01 (−0.04, 0.06) 0.68
 Total performance (TN-E)   0.03 (−0.08, 0.13) 0.63   −0.02 (− 0.14, 0.09) 0.70
 Processing speed (TN)   −0.02 (− 0.13, 0.09) 0.75   −0.05 (− 0.18, 0.07) 0.39
Diet scored 465    368   
 Concentration performance (CP)   2.61 (0.54, 4.69) 0.014   1.09 (−1.31, 3.48) 0.38e
 Total performance (TN-E)   5.76 (1.35, 10.27) 0.012   4.32 (−1.00, 9.64) 0.11e
 Processing speed (TN)   5.54 (0.61, 10.48) 0.028   6.05 (0.24, 11.85) 0.04e
Fatty fish consumptionf 463    368   
 Concentration performance (CP)   1.51 (−1.78, 4.81) 0.37   1.92 (−1.67, 5.52) 0.29
 Total performance (TN-E)   5.86 (−1.23, 12.95) 0.11   6.98 (−0.98, 14.93 0.09
 Processing speed (TN)   8.51 (0.80, 16.23) 0.031   10.08 (1.42, 18.74) 0.023
  1. Abbreviations: FFQ food frequency questionnaire, 25(OH)D 25-hydroxyvitamin D, s-Ferritin serum ferritin, UIC urinary iodine concentration
  2. aLinear mixed effects model with school class as random intercept
  3. bLinear mixed effects model with school class as random intercept, adjusted for age, sex, parental educational level and physical activity level
  4. cThe content of EPA and DHA expressed as percent of total fatty acids [6]
  5. dA score including the reported intake of fruits, vegetables, wholegrain, fish, red meat, dairy products, added sugar, water and physical activity according to the Norwegian dietary recommendations. Range: 0–8 points [21]
  6. eNot adjusted for physical activity
  7. fReported frequency of eating salmon, herring and mackerel from the FFQ