Skip to main content

Table 1 Socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics* of the Indian Migration Study participants by different geographical regions (N = 7067)

From: Association between empirically derived dietary patterns with blood lipids, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure in adults - the India migration study

%/ mean(SD) Lucknow N = 2000 Nagpur N = 1640 Hyderabad N = 1995 Bangalore N = 1432 Total N = 7067
Age (years) 43.8(8.5) 29.5(6.4) 44.7(9.1) 43.9(8.6) 40.8(10.3)
Gender
 Male 61.5 62.9 52.8 56.3 58.3
 Female 38.5 37.0 47.2 43.7 41.6
Illiterate 7.0 2.0 19.7 5.2 9.0
Standard of living indexa 22.7(6.4) 17.8(5.2) 19.2(6.9) 20.0(5.8) 20.0(6.4)
Migrant Status
 Rural 28.6 28.9 33.6 27.3 29.8
 Migrants 28.6 29.0 33.6 27.4 29.8
 Urban 41.0 28.9 19.2 43.1 32.3
Smoking
 Never 86.7 92.0 84.3 86.3 87.2
 Former 1.8 1.5 2.8 3.2 2.3
 Current 11.4 6.4 12.8 10.4 10.4
Tobacco Chewing
 Never 80.7 69.3 90.5 95.2 83.8
 Former 2.6 1.7 1.9 2.2 2.1
 Current 16.6 28.9 7.5 2.5 14.0
Alcohol
 Never 86.5 88.5 64.8 87.1 80.7
 Former 2.6 2.3 4.4 2.7 3.1
 Current 10.8 9.2 31.6 10.1 16.1
Diabetes b
 No 86.7 97.4 88.7 86.8 89.8
 Yes 13.3 1.6 11.1 12.5 9.8
Hypertensionb
 No 70.6 93.8 66.5 72.8 75.2
 Yes 29.4 5.9 33.4 27.0 24.6
Systolic blood pressure mm/Hg 123.4 (17.2) 113.8 (11.7) 127.3 (18.9) 123.1 (17.3) 122.2 (17.4)
Diastolic blood pressure mm/Hg 77.3 (10.7) 73.0 (8.7) 81.6 (11.3) 79.2 (10.9) 77.9 (10.9)
Physical activity METSc hr./week 38.7(4.0) 40.2(5.0) 37.9(4.7) 38.7(4.3) 38.8(4.6)
BMId kg/m2 24.4(4.4) 20.9(3.3) 24.6(4.4) 25.0(4.3) 23.8(4.5)
Dietary patterns in tertiles
Cereal-savoury foods pattern
 T1 89.6 33.1 0.9 0.07 33.3
 T2 9.4 57.9 49.1 16.6 33.3
 T3 0.9 8.9 49.9 83.3 33.3
Fruits-vegetables-sweets-snacks pattern
 T1 20.3 17.2 53.1 42.2 33.3
 T2 41.2 34.3 26.3 30.9 33.3
 T3 38.4 48.3 20.5 26.8 33.3
Animal food pattern (fish-red meat-egg-poultry)
 T1 51.4 39.7 15.4 25.7 33.3
 T2 34.9 33.0 34.8 29.4 33.3
 T3 13.7 27.2 49.7 44.9 33.3
Biomarker levels [mean (±SD)]
 Fasting blood glucose mmol/l 5.7 (1.8) 4.8 (0.9) 5.1 (0.8) 5.5 (1.7) 5.3 (1.4)
 Total cholesterol mmol/l 4.7 (1.1) 4.4 (1.1) 4.8 (1.1) 4.9 (1.1) 4.7 (1.1)
 Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol mmol/l 2.8 (0.9) 2.7 (0.9) 2.9 (1.0) 3.1 (0.9) 2.9 (0.9)
 High-density lipoprotein cholesterol mmol/l 1.2 (0.2) 1.1 (0.2) 1.1 (0.2) 1.1 (0.2) 1.2 (0.2)
 Triglycerides mmol/l 1.5 (0.8) 1.3 (0.6) 1.5 (0.8) 1.5 (0.9) 1.5 (0.8)
  1. *p-values for difference in means or proportions are from ANOVA for continuous data and Chi-square test of significance for categorical data (we found a p < 0.0001 for all comparisons between the regions)
  2. aStandard of Living Index (SLI) distribution is 1–36 (Median 23, IQR =17–27)
  3. bHypertension included doctor-diagnosed disease and/or a systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg or a diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg at the time of the interview. Diabetes included doctor-diagnosed disease and/or a fasting plasma glucose criterion of > 7.0 mmol/l [33]
  4. cMETS Metabolic Equivalent Tasks
  5. dBMI Body Mass Index