Skip to main content

Table 3 Dietary, demographic and cardiometabolic characteristics of Australian adults across sex-specific tertiles (T) of diet quality (n = 2121)a

From: Association between diet quality, dietary patterns and cardiometabolic health in Australian adults: a cross-sectional study

Characteristic All Diet quality P-trendb
T1 T2 T3
Dietary
 DGI 81.8 ± 0.58 67.0 ± 0.49 82.1 ± 0.21 96.2 ± 0.41 < 0.001
 Dietary pattern 1 0.07 ± 0.04 − 0.58 ± 0.06 0.07 ± 0.07 0.72 ± 0.06 < 0.001
 Dietary pattern 2 0.01 ± 0.04 − 0.31 ± 0.06 0.10 ± 0.05 0.24 ± 0.06 < 0.001
 Fibre density, g/MJ 2.87 ± 0.04 2.23 ± 0.04 2.85 ± 0.06 3.54 ± 0.07 < 0.001
 SFA: PUFA 2.69 ± 0.05 2.89 ± 0.09 2.72 ± 0.08 2.47 ± 0.07 < 0.001
 Sugar, %E 19.0 ± 0.24 18.2 ± 0.40 19.5 ± 0.37 19.4 ± 0.39 0.054
Demographic
 Age, y 46.4 ± 0.48 44.3 ± 1.20 47.1 ± 0.95 47.7 ± 1.29 0.11
 Female, % 49.8 47.4 48.5 53.6 0.27
 Country of birth (English speaking) 79.8 82.2 78.4 78.9 0.51
 Highest level of education      
  Low 19.5 22.9 18.5 17.1 0.025
  Medium 49.6 51.6 52.0 45.2  
  High 30.9 25.5 29.6 37.7  
 Smoking, %
  Current smoker 11.9 18.1 11.9 5.81 < 0.001
  Former smoker 33.4 37.1 32.6 30.3  
  Never smoked 54.7 44.8 55.5 63.9  
Meet PA recommendations, % 50.2 42.8 53.5 54.3 0.036
Sedentary time, min/d 343 ± 5.8 350 ± 10.2 336 ± 11.2 344 ± 8.43 0.64
Cardiometabolic
 HbA1c, mmol/mol 35.6 ± 0.20 35.6 ± 0.32 35.9 ± 0.30 35.4 ± 0.36 0.71
 Plasma glucose, mmol/L 5.08 ± 0.02 5.12 ± 0.04 5.12 ± 0.04 5.00 ± 0.04 0.050
 Total cholesterol, mmol/L 5.00 ± 0.04 5.00 ± 0.05 5.00 ± 0.07 5.00 ± 0.05 0.88
 HDL cholesterol, mmol/L 1.35 ± 0.12 1.35 ± 0.02 1.36 ± 0.02 1.34 ± 0.02 0.57
 LDL cholesterol, mmol/L 3.08 ± 0.03 3.07 ± 0.05 3.08 ± 0.06 3.08 ± 0.04 0.72
 Triglycerides, mmol/L 1.23 ± 0.02 1.23 ± 0.04 1.20 ± 0.04 1.27 ± 0.04 0.76
 Apolipoprotein B, g/L 1.00 ± 0.01 1.00 ± 0.18 1.00 ± 0.02 1.01 ± 0.01 0.29
 BMI, kg/m2 27.0 ± 0.19 27.4 ± 0.34 26.7 ± 0.32 26.8 ± 0.35 0.23
 BMI category, %
  Underweight/normal weight 40.4 38.1 39.4 43.7 0.32
  Overweight 35.1 33.7 36.4 35.1  
  Obese 24.5 28.2 24.2 21.2  
 Waist circumference, cm 91.3 ± 0.46 92.6 ± 0.91 91.0 ± 0.90 90.3 ± 0.94 0.14
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 121 ± 0.58 120 ± 1.11 121 ± 1.10 122 ± 1.18 0.36
 Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 75.6 ± 0.39 75.4 ± 0.75 75.4 ± 0.62 76.0 ± 0.84 0.65
 Overall cardiometabolic risk score − 0.11 ± 0.02 − 0.10 ± 0.04 − 0.11 ± 0.04 − 0.12 ± 0.04 0.69
  1. aBMI body mass index, DP dietary pattern; Education: low (completed some high-school or less), medium (completed high-school or completed some high-school and/or certificate/diploma) and high (having a tertiary qualification). BMI category: underweight/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m2), obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2); Overall cardiometabolic risk score was based on WC, TAG, HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure (average blood pressure was used as an index for systolic and diastolic blood pressure), and fasting plasma glucose based on an established methodology [30]. Values represent mean ± SE after adjustment for survey weighting. Where transformed for regression analyses, values represent exponentiated geometric mean ± SE
  2. bLinear regression analyses (continuous variables) and χ2 (categorical variables) were used to test for trends across tertiles