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Table 3 Descriptive characteristics during adolescence and young adulthood by sex1

From: Vegetarian-style dietary pattern during adolescence has long-term positive impact on bone from adolescence to young adulthood: a longitudinal study

  Females Males Total
Adolescence n = 53 n = 72 n = 125
 Biologic age2 (year) 0.2 ± 1.7 −0.1 ± 1.8 0.0 ± 1.7
 Age (year) 12.0 ± 1.8 13.2 ± 1.8* 12.7 ± 1.9
 Age of PHV (year) 11.8 ± 0.8 13.2 ± 0.9 12.6 ± 1.2
 Physical activity (score) 2.9 ± 0.7 3.0 ± 0.6 3.0 ± 0.7
 Total energy intake (kcal/d) 1714 ± 461 1978 ± 615* 1867 ± 569
 Height (cm) 153 ± 11 162 ± 14** 158 ± 13
 Weight (kg) 46.0 ± 14 52.4 ± 14* 49.8 ± 14
 TBBMC (g) 1402 ± 452 1751 ± 612** 1604 ± 575
 TBaBMD (g/cm2) 0.87 ± 0.10 0.94 ± 0.12* 0.91 ± 0.11
 FNBMC (g) 3.3 ± 0.8 4.1 ± 1.0** 3.8 ± 1.0
 FNaBMD (g/cm2) 0.73 ± 0.13 0.81 ± 0.13* 0.77 ± 0.13
 LSBMC (g) 35.8 ± 13.4 40.8 ± 16.0 38.7 ± 15.1
 LAaBMD (g/cm2) 0.76 ± 0.15 0.75 ± 0.14 0.76 ± 0.14
Young adulthood n = 51 n = 64 n = 115
 Biologic age2 (year) 16.1 ± 3.5 15.0 ± 3.3 15.5 ± 3.4
 Age (year) 27.9 ± 3.4 28.3 ± 3.4 28.2 ± 3.4
 Physical activity (score) 2.3 ± 0.6 2.3 ± 0.7 2.3 ± 0.6
 Total energy intake (kcal/d) 1823 ± 698 2823 ± 1235** 2401 ± 1151
 Height (cm) 166 ± 7 179 ± 7** 174 ± 9
 Weight (kg) 70.7 ± 16 87.0 ± 14** 80.3 ± 16
 TBBMC (g) 2286 ± 321 3020 ± 413** 2706 ± 523
 TBaBMD (g/cm2) 1.12 ± 0.09 1.22 ± 0.10** 1.18 ± 0.11
 FNBMC (g) 4.3 ± 0.7 5.6 ± 0.8** 5.0 ± 0.9
 FNaBMD (g/cm2) 0.86 ± 0.10 0.95 ± 0.128** 0.91 ± 0.12
 LSBMC (g) 62.0 ± 12.6 76.2 ± 12.8** 70.3 ± 14.5
 LSaBMD (g/cm2) 1.04 ± 0.12 1.06 ± 0.12 1.05 ± 0.12
  1. Abbreviations: aBMD areal bone mineral density, BMC bone mineral accrual, FN femoral neck, LS lumber spine, PBMAS the pediatric bone mineral accrual study, PHV the peak height velocity, TB total body
  2. 1Values are Mean ± SD. P values were obtained using independent samples Student’s t test. *Different from females, P < 0.01. **Different from females, P < 0.001
  3. 2Biologic age is calculated as chronologic age minus the age of PHV