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Table 4 Logistic regression analyses for the association between volume of formula milk consumption and the odds of infant’ greater-weight and overweight at the age of 6 and 12 mo

From: Early feeding of larger volumes of formula milk is associated with greater body weight or overweight in later infancy

   Greater body weight Overweight
    Crude analysis Adjusted analysisa   Crude analysis Adjusted analysisa
Feeding practices n (%) n (%) OR (CI 95%) P values OR (CI 95%) P values n (%) OR (CI 95%) P values OR (CI 95%) P values
6mo
 BM 610(55.5) 168(27.5) Ref.   Ref.   65(10.7) Ref.   Ref.  
 LFM 363(33.2) 115(31.7) 1.22(0.92; 1.62) 0.169 1.25(0.93;1.67) 0.082 35(9.6) 0.90(0.58;1.38) 0.615 0.87(0.56;1.37) 0.551
 HFM 120(11.0) 46(38.3) 1.64(1.09; 2.46)* 0.018 1.60(1.05;2.44)* 0.021 15(12.5) 1.20(0.66;2.18) 0.555 1.06(0.56;1.99) 0.880
12mo
 BM 610(55.5) 159(26.1) Ref.   Ref.   34(5.6) Ref.   Ref.  
 LFM 363(33.2) 112(30.9) 1.27(0.95;1.69) 0.107 1.24(0.92; 1.66) 0.234 27(7.4) 1.36(0.81; 2.30) 0.248 1.47(0.85;2.58) 0.286
 HFM 120(11.0) 44(36.7) 1.64(1.09;2.48)* 0.019 1.55(1.01;2.37)* 0.046 12(10.0) 1.88(0.95; 3.75) 0.072 2.13(1.03;4.38)* 0.045
  1. aWald test for heterogeneity and adjusted for infant sex, infant birth WLZ, infant birth weight, introduction of solid foods, cesarean, illness episodes, maternal body mass index pre-pregnancy and weight gain during pregnancy.*p < 0.05. BM, no formula milk; LFM, <840 ml formula milk/d; HFM, ≥840 ml formula milk/d; WLZ, weight-for-length z-score; BAZ, BMI-for-age z score