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Table 3 Adjusted mean changes in WLZs and BAZs of infantsa

From: Early feeding of larger volumes of formula milk is associated with greater body weight or overweight in later infancy

Feeding groups/Age interval WLZ changeb
(n = 1054)
P values BAZ changec
(n = 1054)
P values
BM,mo
 Birth─3 0.84(0.75,0.94)   0.84(0.75,0.93)  
 3─6 0.12(0.05,0.20)   −0.01(−0.09,0.06)  
 6─12 −0.19(−0.27,-0.12)   −0.16(−0.23,-0.08)  
LFM,mo
 Birth─3 0.79(0.66,0.91) 0.833 0.76(0.64,0.88) 0.753
 3─6 0.26(0.16,0.35)* 0.016 0.12(0.03,0.21)* 0.013
 6─12 −0.04(−0.13,0.06)* 0.018 −0.02(−0.12,0.08) 0.056
HFM,mo
 Birth─3 0.77(0.56,0.99) 0.833 0.80(0.60,1.00) 0.753
 3─6 0.30(0.14,0.47)* 0.023 0.15(−0.01,0.31)* 0.033
 6─12 0.00(−0.17,0.16)* 0.048 −0.02(−0.19,0.15) 0.056
  1. aValues are means with 95% CIs in parentheses. Analyses were performed with the use of linear mixed-effect modeling and adjusted for infant sex, infant birth weight, cesarean, introduction of solid foods, illness episodes, pre-pregnancy BMI and weight gain during pregnancy, and WLZ or BAZ at birth. BM, no formula milk; LFM, <840 ml formula milk/d; HFM, ≥840 ml formula milk/d; WLZ, weight-for-length z-scores; BAZ, BMI-for-age z score. *Significantly different from BM at the same time interval determined by one-way ANOVA (P < 0.05). bSignificant 2-way interaction: feeding practices 3 × age; P = 0.002. cTwo-way interaction: feeding practices 3 × age; P = 0.017