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Table 2 Comparison of infants’ anthropometric indexes by volume of formula milk consumption at 3 mo of age

From: Early feeding of larger volumes of formula milk is associated with greater body weight or overweight in later infancy

   Feeding groups     
Variable and age n BM LFM HFM Pa Pb Pc Pd
Body Weight (kg)   610(55.5) 363(33.2) 120(11.0)  
 At birth 1093 3.33 ± 0.39 3.34 ± 0.38 3.36 ± 0.42 0.782 0.890 0.483 0.563
 3mo 1085 6.93 ± 0.84 6.90 ± 0.79 7.12 ± 0.72 0.029 0.515 0.019 0.009
 6mo 1093 8.51 ± 1.00 8.61 ± 1.02 8.85 ± 0.87 0.002 0.118 0.022 0.022
 12mo 1093 10.11 ± 1.07 10.4 ± 1.10 10.73 ± 0.99 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.004
Body Length (cm)
 At birth 1093 50.1 ± 1.24 50.28 ± 1.31 50.11 ± 1.28 0.095 0.035 0.963 0.199
 3mo 1085 62.34 ± 2.16 62.5 ± 2.3 63.07 ± 2.47 0.005 0.275 0.001 0.016
 6mo 1093 68.34 ± 2.33 68.64 ± 2.45 69.04 ± 2.51 0.007 0.057 0.004 0.117
 12mo 1093 76.35 ± 2.41 76.92 ± 2.85 77.46 ± 2.61 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.045
WLZ
 At birth 1093 −0.19 ± 1.03 −0.29 ± 0.99 −0.1 ± 1.00 0.147 0.143 0.369 0.076
 3mo 1085 0.64 ± 1.08 0.51 ± 0.97 0.65 ± 0.8 0.150 0.064 0.198 0.198
 6mo 1093 0.74 ± 1.02 0.76 ± 0.98 0.96 ± 0.93 0.080 0.749 0.055 0.055
 12mo 1093 0.56 ± 0.93 0.73 ± 0.91 0.96 ± 0.81 <0.001 0.003 <0.001 0.020
BAZ
 At birth 1093 −0.15 ± 1.01 −0.21 ± 0.96 −0.08 ± 1 0.387 0.326 0.488 0.202
 3mo 1085 0.68 ± 1.07 0.55 ± 0.95 0.7 ± 0.77 0.105 0.047 0.816 0.140
 6mo 1093 0.64 ± 1.03 0.66 ± 1 0.86 ± 0.94 0.098 0.828 0.033 0.593
 12mo 1093 0.5 ± 0.95 0.65 ± 0.93 0.83 ± 0.83 <0.001 0.012 <0.001 0.061
  1. aOne-way ANOVA for continuous variables were used to compare the 3 groups
  2. bComparison between BM and LFM.c Comparison between BM and HFM.d Comparison between LFM and HFM.BM, no formula milk; LFM, <840 ml formula milk/d; HFM,≥840 ml formula milk/d; WLZ, weight-for-length z-scores; BAZ, BMI-for-age z score