Skip to main content

Table 1 Differences between maternal and infant characteristics and volume of formula milk consumption at 3 mo of agea

From: Early feeding of larger volumes of formula milk is associated with greater body weight or overweight in later infancy

  Feeding groups  
  Overall BM LFM HFM P
Maternal characteristics   610(55.5) 363(33.2) 120(11.0)  
Age(years), n(%)
 17~25 134(12.4) 83(13.6) 42(11.6) 9(7.5) 0.022
 25~29 562(51.8) 319(52.3) 192(52.9) 51(42.5)  
 30~34 305(28.1) 156(25.6) 99(27.3) 50(41.7)  
 35~46 83(7.7) 45(7.4) 28(7.7) 10(8.3)  
Educational level(years), n(%)
  ≤ 9 139(12.8) 83(13.6) 41(11.3) 15(12.5) 0.657
 10~12 248(22.9) 129(21.1) 90(24.8) 29(24.3)  
 13~22 695(64.2) 390(63.9) 229(63.1) 76(63.3)  
BMI before pregnancy(kg/m2), n(%)
 14.42~18.5 233(21.4) 121(19.8) 84(23.1) 28(23.3) 0.022
 18.5~23.9 722(66.2) 416(68.2) 238(65.6) 68(56.7)  
 24~27.9 115(10.6) 65(10.7) 29(8.0) 21(17.5)  
 28~31.25 20(1.8) 7(1.1) 10(2.8) 3(2.5)  
Maternal gestational weight gain quartile (kg), n(%)
 2~13 275(25.3) 154(25.2) 84(23.1) 37(30.8) 0.132
 13.1~16.5 270(24.8) 156(25.6) 97(26.7) 17(14.2)  
 16.6~20 307(28.2) 171(28.0) 97(26.7) 39(32.5)  
 20.1~41 237(21.8) 127(20.8) 83(22.9) 27(22.5)  
Cesarean, n(%)
 yes 680(62.8) 352(57.7) 231(63.6) 97(80.8) <0.001
Maternal GDM, n(%)
 yes 60(5.5) 37(6.1) 15(4.1) 8(6.7) 0.501
Return to work at postpartum 3 month, n(%)
 yes 121(11.1) 39(6.4) 57(15.7) 25(20.8) <0.001
Infant characteristics
Sex, n(%)
 Boy 585(53.5) 302(49.5) 209(57.6) 74(61.7) 0.008
 Girl 508(46.5) 308(50.5) 154(42.4) 46(38.3)  
Infant gestational age at birth(wk), n(%)
 37~38 306(28.2) 157(25.7) 115(31.7) 34(28.3) 0.226
 39~40 700(64.6) 407(66.7) 217(60.0) 76(63.3)  
 41~42 78(7.2) 39(6.4) 29(8.0) 10(8.3)  
Age at introduction of solid foods(months), n(%)
  < 6 680(63.7) 355(58.2) 238(65.6) 87(72.5) 0.013
  ≥ 6 387(36.3) 233(38.2) 123(33.9) 31(25.8)  
illness episodes, n(%)
 yes 137(12.5) 72(11.8) 51(14.0) 14(11.7) 0.566
Daily sleep time at 3mo(h) 14.96 ± 1.97b 15.04 ± 1.9 14.83 ± 2.04 14.95 ± 2.1 0.282
Daily sleep time at 6mo(h) 13.63 ± 1.48 13.66 ± 1.51 13.56 ± 1.47 13.71 ± 1.41 0.525
Formula volume intake (ml/d) P50(P10; P90) 600(120 ;960) 0 405(120;720) 960(840;1120)  
  1. aActual n = 1093. P values were determined on the basis of Pearson’s chi-square test of an association for categorical variables and the one-way ANOVA for continuous outcome variables. BM: breast milk, LFM:<840 ml formula milk/d; HFM: ≥840 ml formula milk/d.b Mean ± SD (all such values)