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Table 4 Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios for the associations of dietary patterns and physical activity with metabolically healthy obesity

From: Dietary patterns and physical activity in the metabolically (un)healthy obese: the Dutch Lifelines cohort study

  Men Women
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2
Dietary pattern
 Savory snacks and sweets
  Q1 1 1 1 1
  Q2 1.12 (0.78–1.63) 1.18 (0.79–1.73) 1.26 (1.01–1.57) 1.16 (0.92–1.46)
  Q3 1.46 (1.02–2.09) 1.57 (1.05–2.36) 1.13 (0.90–1.42) 1.00 (0.77–1.29)
  Q4 1.29 (0.88–1.90) 1.41 (0.86–2.30) 1.43 (1.13–1.81) a 1.24 (0.90–1.71)
P for trend NS NS 0.045 NS
 Meat and alcohol
  Q1 1 1 1 1
  Q2 0.89 (0.64–1.23) 0.98 (0.70–1.36) 0.98 (0.80–1.21) 1.05 (0.85–1.30)
  Q3 0.78 (0.56–1.09) 0.91 (0.64–1.30) 0.83 (0.67–1.03) 0.88 (0.71–1.10)
  Q4 0.72 (0.51–1.02) 0.94 (0.63–1.42) 1.02 (0.82–1.26) 1.14 (0.89–1.46)
P for trend 0.045 NS NS NS
 Bread, potatoes and sweet snacks
  Q1 1 1 1 1
  Q2 0.78 (0.56–1.09) 0.77 (0.54–1.09) 0.64 (0.52–0.80) 0.64 (0.51–0.80) b
  Q3 0.75 (0.54–1.06) 0.76 (0.52–1.10) 0.66 (0.53–0.81) 0.66 (0.52–0.83) a
  Q4 0.92 (0.66–1.28) 0.92 (0.59–1.44) 0.55 (0.44–0.68) 0.52 (0.39–0.70) b
P for trend NS NS <0.0001 <0.0001
 Fruit, vegetables and fish
  Q1 1 1 1 1
  Q2 1.03 (0.75–1.44) 1.01 (0.73–1.41) 1.24 (1.01–1.54) 1.14 (0.91–1.41)
  Q3 0.88 (0.62–1.24) 0.83 (0.57–1.18) 1.55 (1.25–1.92) b 1.36 (1.09–1.71) a
  Q4 0.96 (0.68–1.36) 0.87 (0.60–1.25) 1.75 (1.40–2.19) b 1.55 (1.21–1.97) a
P for trend NS NS <0.0001 <0.0001
 Moderate PA score
  T1 ‘low’ 1 1 1 1
  T2 ‘middle’ 1.22 (0.90–1.65) 1.18 (0.87–1.61) 1.10 (0.90–1.34) 1.08 (0.88–1.31)
  T3 ‘high’ 1.03 (0.78–1.35) 0.99 (0.75–1.32) 1.15 (0.97–1.36) 1.19 (1.01–1.41)
P for trend NS NS NS 0.020
 Vigorous PA score
  T1 ‘low’ 1 1 1 1
  T2 ‘middle’ 1.21 (0.89–1.65) 1.20 (0.88–1.63) 1.17 (0.97–1.40) 1.13 (0.94–1.35)
  T3 ‘high’ 2.11 (1.57–2.83) b 2.02 (1.50–2.71) b 1.21 (1.01–1.45) 1.17 (0.98–1.41)
P for trend <0.0001 0.0001 NS NS
 Age group
  30–39 1 1 1 1
  40–49 0.75 (0.56–1.00) 0.73 (0.54–0.99) 0.45 (0.37–0.55) 0.47 (0.38–0.57)
  50–59 0.36 (0.25–0.53) b 0.36 (0.24–0.53) b 0.22 (0.17–0.28) b 0.22 (0.17–0.28) b
  60–69 0.33 (0.21–0.53) b 0.33 (0.21–0.54) b 0.10 (0.07–0.13) b 0.09 (0.07–0.13) b
P for trend <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
 BMI group
  30–34.9 1 1 1  
   ≥ 35 0.37 (0.24–0.55) b 0.33 (0.22–0.50) b 0.38 (0.32–0.45) b 0.37 (0.31–0.44) b
P for trend <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
 Smoking
  Non   1   1
  Former   0.77 (0.58–1.00)   0.97 (0.82–1.14)
  Current   0.45 (0.32–0.63) b   0.52 (0.42–0.65) b
 Education level
  Low   1   1
  Middle   0.99 (0.75–1.30)   0.96 (0.82–1.16)
  High   0.88 (0.63–1.24)   1.30 (1.04–1.63)
 Use of a (self-) prescribed diet
  No   1   1
  Yes   1.42 (0.86–2.36)   0.68 (0.53–0.87) a
Energy intake*   0.84 (0.53–1.33)   0.95 (0.72–1.36)
  1. Data are expressed as odds ratios (95% confidence interval). Reference group is the metabolically unhealthy obese. Values in BOLD indicate a P ≤ 0.05, a denotes a P ≤ 0.01 and b denotes a P ≤ 0.0001. P for trend test was performed by using for the dietary patterns the median value of each quartile, and a continuous score for physical activity, age and BMI. * Energy intake is given per 1.000 kcal increase. Model 1 (dietary patterns + physical activity): adjusted for age group and BMI group. Model 2 (dietary patterns + physical activity): adjusted for age group, BMI group, smoking, education level, use of a (self)prescribed diet and energy intake