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Table 3 Demographic, physical activity and other lifestyle characteristics within the first and fourth quartile of the dietary pattern

From: Dietary patterns and physical activity in the metabolically (un)healthy obese: the Dutch Lifelines cohort study

  Savory snacks and sweets Meat and alcohol Bread, potatoes and
sweet snacks
Fruit, vegetables and fish
  Q1 Q4 Q1 Q4 Q1 Q4 Q1 Q4
N 2317 2317 2317 2317 2317 2317 2317 2317
Males (%) 860 (37.1) 860 (37.1) 860 (37.1) 860 (37.1) 860 (37.1) 860 (37.1) 860 (37.1) 859 (37.1)
Age (years), mean ± sd 53.9 ± 9.9 44.2 ± 7.4 b 47.9 ± 10.1 48.7 ± 8.9 49.0 ± 9.5 48.4 ± 9.8 44.8 ± 8.1 51.6 ± 9.9 b
BMI (kg/m2), median [IQR] 33.5 [30.9–34.7] 32.6 [31.1–35.3] a 32.5 [30.9–34.8] 32.5 [31.0–35.2] 32.4 [30.9–34.8] 32.4 [30.9–34.9] 32.7 [31.1–35.4] 32.3 [30.9–34.6] b
Metabolic health (%)
 MUO 46.4 40.1 b 42.1 43.8 39.4 44.9 a 44.8 41.3
 Intermediate 38.6 37.5 36.3 37.9 38.5 37.4 36.7 38.9
 MHO 15.0 22.4 b 21.7 18.3 a 22.1 17.7 a 18.5 19.8
Energy intake (kcal/day) 1486 ± 412 2279 ± 411b 1572 ± 449 2191 ± 456 b 1504 ± 432 2256 ± 404 b 1973 ± 511 1813 ± 490 b
MVPA (min/week) 280 [110–720] 255 [90–769] 268 [90–720] 280 [90–780] 250 [75–660] 300 [100–840] b 270 [60–960] 290 [120–680]
Moderate PA score 225 [0–1350] 300 [0–2625] a 240 [0–2025] 300 [0–1700] a 300 [0–1700] 300 [0–2700] a 300 [0–3780] 300 [0–1500] a
Vigorous PA score 960 [105–2160] 645 [0–1600] b 800 [48–1920] 640 [0–1680] b 720 [0–1800] 780 [80–1920] a 480 [0–1440] 960 [240–2160] b
Education level (%)
 Low 52.1 29.8 b 37.1 41.4 a 32.2 46.9 b 47.5 32.8 b
 Middle 33.4 45.7 b 41.1 40.5 40.1 39.4 41.1 38.5
 High 14.5 24.5 b 21.8 18.1 a 27.7 13.8 b 11.4 28.6 b
Smoking (%)
 Non 38.6 46.3 b 54.4 31.3 b 38.6 46.6 b 39.0 44.2 a
 Former 45.0 34.0 b 34.9 42.8 b 42.4 37.5 a 30.3 46.7 b
 Current 16.4 19.7 a 10.7 25.9 b 19.0 15.9 a 30.7 9.1 b
Alcohol use (%)
 Non 30.0 23.4 b 39.3 14.3 b 16.9 32.8 b 29.6 22.4 b
  ≤ 2 drinks/day 63.9 68.3* 60.1 66.6 b 69.5 64.2 a 59.8 71.0 b
  > 2 drinks/day 6.1 8.2 * 0.6 19.0 b 13.6 3.0 b 10.6 6.6 b
(Self-) prescribed diet (%) 18.2 3.9 b 11.8 7.0 b 15.8 5.2 b 3.5 18.9 b
Type 2 diabetes (%) 10.3 2.8 b 5.6 5.0 4.5 5.4 3.2 6.6 b
CVD history (%) 4.4 1.2 b 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 1.8 3.4 a
Use of BP lowering drug (%) 37.3 17.7 b 24.3 25.2 25.2 24.5 19.5 29.4 b
  1. Data is presented as mean ± SD or median [interquartile range] or percentage (%). * denotes a P ≤ 0.05, a denotes a P ≤ 0.01 and b denotes a P ≤ 0.0001 compared to Q1 of the same dietary pattern. BMI body mass index, MUO metabolically unhealthy obesity, MHO metabolically healthy obesity, MVPA moderate–vigorous physical activity, PA physical activity, CVD cardiovascular disease, BP blood pressure. Education level: low (no formal education, only primary school or intermediate vocational education), middle (higher secondary education) or high (higher vocational education and university)