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Table 5 Adjusted β coefficients (95% confidence interval) for the associations of household, maternal and child dietary diversity scores and tertiles of dietary pattern scores with childhood height-for-age z score in Ethiopia, 2014

From: Associations of childhood, maternal and household dietary patterns with childhood stunting in Ethiopia: proposing an alternative and plausible dietary analysis method to dietary diversity scores

  Adjusted β coefficient (95% confidence interval) for height-for-age z score
Household
 Dietary diversity score <=4 > = 5   P value AIC (BIC)
  Reference 0.03 (−0.80, 0.14)   0.624 12,722 (12850)
  Tertiles
 Dietary patterns T1 T2 T3 P for trend AIC (BIC)
  Pattern 1 (“fish, meat and miscellaneous”) Reference −0.01 (−0.15, 0.12) −0.07 (−0.21, 0.07) 0.312 12,466 (12600)
  Pattern 2 (“egg, meat, poultry and legume”) Reference −0.001 (−0.14, 0.13) −0.03 (−0.19, 0.12) 0.681 12,467 (12601)
  Pattern 3 (“dairy, vegetable and fruit”) Reference 0.07 (−0.07, 0.20) 0.16 (0.02, 0.30)* 0.026 12,462 (12597)
Maternal
 Dietary diversity score <=4 > = 5   P value AIC (BIC)
  Reference 0.03 (−0.10, 0.16)   0.672 12,722 (12851)
  Tertiles
 Dietary patterns T1 T2 T3 P for trend AIC (BIC)
  Pattern 1 (“plant-based”) Reference 0.07 (−0.07, 0.20) 0.09 (−0.06, 0.23) 0.229 12,564 (12699)
  Pattern 2 (“egg, meat, poultry and legume”) Reference −0.17 (−0.31, −0.04)* −0.16 (−0.30, −0.02)* 0.025 12,558 (12693)
  Pattern 3 (“dairy, vegetable and fruit”) Reference 0.06 (−0.07, 0.20) 0.10 (−0.05, 0.25) 0.229 12,564 (12698)
Children aged 6–23 months
 Dietary diversity score <=3 > = 4   P value AIC (BIC)
  Reference −0.26 (−0.61, 0.78)   0.130 3107 (3196)
  Tertiles
 Dietary patterns T1 T2 T3 P for trend AIC (BIC)
  Pattern 1 (“grain-based”) Reference 0.07 (−0.18, 0.32) −0.20 (−0.50, 0.10) 0.290 3124 (3219)
  Pattern 2 (“egg, meat, poultry and legume”) Reference 0.03 (−0.30 (0.32) −0.02 (−0.27, 0.24) 0.892 3127 (3222)
  Pattern 3 (“dairy, vegetable and fruit”) Reference −0.001 (−0.25, 0.25) 0.02 (−0.27, 0.32) 0.890 3128 (3222)
Children aged 24–59 months
 Dietary diversity score <=3 > = 4   P value AIC (BIC)
  Reference 0.12 (−0.02, 0.27)   0.095 7641 (7748)
  Tertiles
 Dietary patterns T1 T2 T3 P for trend AIC (BIC)
  Pattern 1 (“grain-based”) Reference 0.08 (−0.09, 0.25) 0.04 (−0.14, 0.21) 0.685 7663 (7776)
  Pattern 2 (“egg, meat, poultry and legume”) Reference 0.13 (−0.3, 0.30) −0.05 (−0.23, 0.13) 0.668 7659 (7772)
  Pattern 3 (“dairy, vegetable and fruit”) Reference −0.03 (−0.20, 0.14) 0.22 (0.06, 0.39)** 0.007 7654 (7766)
Children aged 6–59 months
  Tetiles
 Dietary patterns T1 T2 T3 P for trend AIC (BIC)
  Pattern 1 (“grain-based”) Reference 0.10 (−0.04, 0.25) −0.04 (−0.19, 0.11) 0.643 10,746 (10871)
  Pattern 2 (“egg, meat, poultry and legume”) Reference −0.07 (−0.7, 0.21) −0.02 (−0.17, 0.13) 0.841 10,748 (10874)
  Pattern 3 (“dairy, vegetable and fruit”) Reference −0.02 (−0.16, 0.13) 0.19 (0.04, 0.33)* 0.014 10,741 (10867)
  1. The β coefficients were adjusted for both individual (maternal body mass index, age (if applicable), household food security, number of under-five children in a household, maternal education, maternal height, exclusive breast feeding) and community-level patterns (water source)
  2. P for trend was determined by including the tertiles of dietary patterns as continuous variables
  3. AIC Akaike’s information criterion, BIC Bayesian information criterion
  4. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01