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Table 2 Characteristics of study participants by age of children in Ethiopia, 2014

From: Associations of childhood, maternal and household dietary patterns with childhood stunting in Ethiopia: proposing an alternative and plausible dietary analysis method to dietary diversity scores

Characteristics Overall 0–5 months 6–23 months 24–59 months p-value
N 3788 601 896 2287  
Sex of children
 Male 1850 (48.8%) 284 (47.3%) 438 (48.9%) 1126 (49.2%) 0.680
 Female 1805 (47.7%) 294 (48.9%) 433 (48.3%) 1076 (47.0%)
 Missing 133 (3.5%) 23 (3.8%) 25 (2.8%) 85 (3.7%)
Sex of household head
 Male 3438 (90.8%) 560 (93.2%) 820 (91.5%) 2055 (89.9%) 0.098
 Female 231 (6.1%) 26 (4.3%) 53 (5.9%) 151 (6.6%)
 Missing 119 (3.1%) 15 (2.5%) 23 (2.6%) 81 (3.5%)
Number of under 5 children in the household
 One Child 2353 (62.1%) 259 (43.1%) 505 (56.4%) 1585 (69.3%) <0.001
 Two children 1313 (34.7%) 300 (49.9%) 372 (41.5%) 641 (28.0%)
 More than three children 97 (2.6%) 40 (6.7%) 18 (2.0%) 39 (1.7%)
 Missing 25 (0.7%) 2 (0.3%) 1 (0.1%) 22 (1.0%)
Maternal age, median (IQR) 29.0 (25.0, 35.0) 27.0 (23.0, 32.0) 28.0 (23.0, 33.0) 30.0 (25.0, 35.0) <0.001
Maternal education
 No education 2069 (54.6%) 274 (45.6%) 454 (50.7%) 1339 (58.5%) <0.001
 Primary 1364 (36.0%) 265 (44.1%) 351 (39.2%) 746 (32.6%)
 Secondary and above 193 (5.1%) 41 (6.8%) 50 (5.6%) 102 (4.5%)
 Missing 162 (4.3%) 21 (3.5%) 41 (4.6%) 100 (4.4%)
Paternal education
 No education 1283 (33.9%) 177 (29.5%) 282 (31.5%) 823 (36.0%) 0.004
 Primary 1644 (43.4%) 293 (48.8%) 397 (44.3%) 952 (41.6%)
 Secondary and above 417 (11.0%) 73 (12.1%) 106 (11.8%) 238 (10.4%)
 Missing 444 (11.7%) 58 (9.7%) 111 (12.4%) 274 (12.0%)
Maternal body-mas index (kg/m2), mean (SD) 20.2 (2.4) 20.9 (2.4) 20.0 (2.3) 20.1 (2.4) <0.001
Maternal Height (meter), mean (SD) 1.6 (0.1) 1.6 (0.1) 1.6 (0.1) 1.6 (0.1) 0.550
Place of delivery
 Home 2371 (62.6%) 263 (43.8%) 483 (53.9%) 1623 (71.0%) <0.001
 Health facility 1346 (35.5%) 327 (54.4%) 398 (44.4%) 619 (27.1%)
 Other 71 (1.9%) 11 (1.8%) 15 (1.7%) 45 (2.0%)
Water source
 Piped water 1694 (44.7%) 279 (46.4%) 399 (44.5%) 1014 (44.3%) 0.740
 Other improved 1104 (29.1%) 168 (28.0%) 253 (28.2%) 683 (29.9%)
 Unimproved 990 (26.1%) 154 (25.6%) 244 (27.2%) 590 (25.8%)
Latrine type
 Traditional pit latrine 3087 (81.5%) 493 (82.0%) 735 (82.0%) 1857 (81.2%) 0.015
 Improved latrine 25 (0.7%) 10 (1.7%) 3 (0.3%) 12 (0.5%)
 No facility/bush/field 676 (17.8%) 98 (16.3%) 158 (17.6%) 418 (18.3%)
Income quantile
 Poorest 603 (15.9%) 87 (14.5%) 151 (16.9%) 364 (15.9%) 0.470
 Poorer 602 (15.9%) 96 (16.0%) 134 (15.0%) 372 (16.3%)
 Middle 602 (15.9%) 84 (14.0%) 142 (15.8%) 376 (16.4%)
 Richer 602 (15.9%) 109 (18.1%) 136 (15.2%) 356 (15.6%)
 Richest 602 (15.9%) 106 (17.6%) 144 (16.1%) 351 (15.3%)
 Missing 777 (20.5%) 119 (19.8%) 189 (21.1%) 468 (20.5%)
Stunted
 No 2161 (57.0%) 510 (84.9%) 539 (60.2%) 1109 (48.5%) <0.001
 Yes 1459 (38.5%) 45 (7.5%) 330 (36.8%) 1084 (47.4%)
 Missing 168 (4.4%) 46 (7.7%) 27 (3.0%) 94 (4.1%)
Height-for-age z-score, mean (SD) −1.6 (1.8) 0.0 (1.6) −1.5 (1.6) −2.0 (1.6) <0.001
Underweight
 No 2986 (78.8%) 563 (93.7%) 704 (78.6%) 1715 (75.0%) <0.001
 Yes 802 (21.2%) 38 (6.3%) 192 (21.4%) 572 (25.0%)
Weight-for-age z-score, mean (SD) −1.0 (2.3) 0.2 (3.7) −1.0 (2.3) −1.3 (1.6) <0.001