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Table 1 Background characteristics of the participants

From: Effect of soy lecithin on fatigue and menopausal symptoms in middle-aged women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

  Placebo (n = 32) Low-dose lecithin (n = 30) High-dose lecithin (n = 27) P value
Age, y 51.2 ± 5.2 50.3 ± 5.8 49.3 ± 4.8 0.423a
Menopausal status, n (%)
 Premenopausal 7 (21.9) 10 (33.3) 14 (51.9) 0.222b
 Perimenopausal 7 (21.9) 5 (16.7) 2 (7.4)  
 Postmenopausal 17 (53.1) 13 (43.3) 11 (40.7)  
 Surgically induced menopause 1 (3.1) 2 (6.7) 0 (0)  
Questionnaire
 MHR-QOL physical symptom score 21.2 ± 3.5 21.9 ± 2.9 20.6 ± 3.2 0.406c
 MHR-QOL psychological symptom score 27.1 ± 8.0 29.7 ± 6.7 30.0 ± 5.5 0.328c
 HADS-anxiety subscale score 5.8 ± 2.9 5.3 ± 3.3 4.9 ± 2.7 0.549c
 HADS-depression subscale score 5.5 ± 3.7 4.8 ± 3.7 4.7 ± 3.1 0.679c
 AIS score 5.0 ± 3.0 4.0 ± 2.9 4.1 ± 2.6 0.443c
 Chalder Fatigue Scale 18.7 ± 8.3 17.1 ± 5.3 17.6 ± 6.6 0.628c
 Brief Fatigue Inventory 2.7 ± 1.9 3.0 ± 1.7 3.0 ± 2.0 0.575c
 POMS-tension 6.1 ± 4.9 5.5 ± 4.3 4.3 ± 3.1 0.461c
 POMS-depression 3.9 ± 3.9 2.5 ± 3.1 2.5 ± 2.6 0.217c
 POMS-anger 5.1 ± 4.2 3.7 ± 3.1 2.8 ± 2.5 0.104c
 POMS-vigor 7.7 ± 4.1 7.2 ± 3.6 6.1 ± 3.5 0.179c
 POMS-fatigue 6.8 ± 4.4 7.8 ± 4.3 6.4 ± 3.6 0.727c
 POMS-confusion 5.0 ± 2.8 4.8 ± 2.4 3.8 ± 2.2 0.323c
Body composition
 Height, cm 157.6 ± 4.6 158.4 ± 5.1 158.0 ± 3.8 0.817a
 Weight, kg 52.8 ± 7.5 52.6 ± 6.0 58.3 ± 11.1 0.018a
 Body mass index, kg/cm2 21.2 ± 2.8 21.0 ± 2.5 23.3 ± 4.0 0.012a
 Body fat mass, kg 14.0 ± 5.1 13.7 ± 4.4 18.5 ± 8.5 0.008a
 Fat free mass, kg 36.5 ± 2.8 36.6 ± 2.2 37.6 ± 2.8 0.222a
 Waist:hip ratio, % 80.6 ± 6.1 81.7 ± 4.8 83.4 ± 6.2 0.191a
 Body temperature, °C 36.3 ± 0.33 36.4 ± 0.42 36.3 ± 0.41 0.701a
Cardiovascular parameters
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 122.7 ± 15.7 119.3 ± 16.1 119.9 ± 13.6 0.668a
 Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 69.2 ± 12.1 67.8 ± 13.6 68.7 ± 13.6 0.919a
 Heart rate, beats/min 77.2 ± 8.0 76.9 ± 12.7 80.1 ± 12.4 0.504a
 Cardio-ankle vascular index 7.19 ± 0.79 7.24 ± 0.79 7.14 ± 0.78 0.967a
Actigraphy
 Active ZC (/min) 156.6 ± 26.2 148.0 ± 31.8 149.0 ± 34.0 0.506a
 Sleep ZC (/min) 4.3 ± 1.1 4.3 ± 1.8 4.7 ± 1.7 0.606a
 Active METs 1.6 ± 0.15 1.5 ± 0.14 1.6 ± 0.21 0.674a
 Sleep METs 1.1 ± 0.015 1.1 ± 0.015 1.1 ± 0.019 0.580a
 Sleep time (min/day) 372.1 ± 70.6 371.4 ± 60,6 367.8 ± 54.8 0.687a
 Sleep efficiency (%) 97.2 ± 1.4 97.4 ± 1.7 97.5 ± 1.8 0.719a
 Episodes of nocturnal awakening (>1 min) (/day) 1.7 ± 1.2 1.8 ± 1.4 1.8 ± 1.5 0.676a
Lifestyle factors, %
 Exercising regularly 50.0 46.7 51.9 0.923b
 Smoking 6.25 10.0 7.4 0.856b
 Drinking alcohol (daily / by chance / not at all) 15.6 / 68.8 / 15.6 20.0 / 63.3 / 16.7 29.6 / 59.3 / 11.1 0.749b
  1. Values are presented as mean ± SD unless otherwise indicated
  2. AIS Athens Insomnia Scale, CAVI cardio-ankle vascular index, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, METs metabolic equivalents, MHR-QOL Menopausal Health-Related Quality of Life, POMS Profile of Mood States, ZC, zero-crossing
  3. aOne-way analysis of variance
  4. bChi-square test
  5. cKruskal-Wallis test