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Table 5 Self-reported satiety (on a 100-point visual analog scale where Hunger is scored 0 = very hungry, 100 = not hungry at all; Fullness is scored 0 = not full, 100 = full; Quantity is scored 0 = nothing, 100 = a lot) in the weight reduction intervention

From: Walnut consumption in a weight reduction intervention: effects on body weight, biological measures, blood pressure and satiety

  Standard reduced-energy-density diet, mean(SEM) Walnut-enriched reduced-energy diet, mean(SEM)
  Lunch Dinner Lunch Dinner
Hunger
 Week 1 43 (3) 40 (4) 49 (3) 40 (3)
 Week 6 50 (4) 43 (4) 42 (4) 45 (4)
 Week 12 53 (5) a 49 (4) a 44 (4) 44 (4)
Fullness
 Week 1 44(4) 48 (5) 51(4) 51(5)
 Week 6 53 (5) 53 (42) 58 (4) 52 (5)
 Week 12 52 (6) a 61 (5) a 48 (4) b 49 (4) b
Quantity
 Week 1 44(4) 50 (4) 49 (3) 55(4)
 Week 6 49 (4) 53 (4) 48 (4) 47 (4)
 Week 12 41 (4) 38 (5) 44 (3) 49 (4)
  1. a Both hunger and fullness were greater at week 12 than week 1 in the standard reduced-energy-density diet group (p < 0.05)
  2. b At week 12, fullness was lower in the walnut-rich diet arm than in the standard reduced-energy-density diet group (p = 0.04)