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Table 2 Subgroup analyses of fasting glucose and insulin concentrations stratified by previously defined study characteristics

From: Lack of efficacy of pomegranate supplementation for glucose management, insulin levels and sensitivity: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis

Variables Fasting glucose Fasting insulin
No. of trials Net change (95% CI)a P * I2
(%)b
No. of trials Net change (95% CI)a P * I2
(%)b
Sensitivity analyses
 Exclude high-risk research 13 −0.55 (−2.82 to 1.73) 0.64 0 8 0.29 (−1.16 to 1.75) 0.70 60
 Removing study did not use placebo as control 13 −0.64 (−2.89 to 1.60) 0.58 0 8 0.29 (−1.16 to 1.75) 0.70 60
Subgroup analyses
 Study design
  Parallel 13 −0.09 (−2.74 to 2.56) 0.95 0 6 0.24 (−1.49to 1.97) 0.78 65
  Crossover 2 0.03 (−7.92 to 7.98) 0.99 60 2 0.42 (−3.22 to 4.06) 0.82 64
 Duration
  <5 week 9 −0.82 (−3.27 to 1.63) 0.51 0 5 0.01 (−2.40 to 2.42) 0.99 71
   ≥ 5 week 6 0.22 (−4.57 to 5.02) 0.93 0 3 0.58 (−1.28 to 2.43) 0.54 49
 Type of intervention
  PJ consumption 11 −0.58 (−3.09 to 1.92) 0.65 0 5 1.28 (−0.74 to 3.30) 0.22 51
   <250 ml/d 7 0.32 (−3.03 to 3.67) 0.85 0 3 2.86 (0.00 to 4.88) 0.05 0
    ≥ 250 ml/d 4 −1.73 (−5.51 to 2.04) 0.37 0 2 −0.33 (−1.85 to 1.20) 0.67 0
  PE/PSO consumption 4 −0.67 (−5.10 to 3.77) 0.77 23 3 −0.84 (−3.12 to 1.44) 0.47 73
    ≤ 1000 mg/d 2 −3.30 (−9.08 to 2.48) 0.26 47 2 −1.39 (−5.68 to 2.90) 0.52 86
   >1000 mg/d 2 3.31 (−3.81 to 10.04) 0.38 0 1 −0.12 (−1.96 to 1.72) 0.9 NA
 Healthy status
  CVD risk 11 0.30 (−2.36 to 2.97) 0.82 0 7 0.51 (−1.05 to 2.07) 0.52 64
  Healthy 3 −2.53 (−6.36 to 1.30) 0.19 0 1 −1.72 (−5.41 to 1.97) 0.36 NA
 BMI
  <30 kg/m2 7 −1.56 (−4.51 to 1.39) 0.30 0 5 0.29 (−0.87 to 1.44) 0.63 24
   ≥ 30 kg/m2 5 −0.10 (−3.83 to 3.62) 0.96 0 2 0.06 (−8.16 to 8.28) 0.99 84
 Baseline FBG levels
  <100 mg/dL 9 −1.00 (−3.29 to 1.30) 0.39 0 4 0.51 (−3.74 to 4.76) 0.81 78
  100–126 mg/dL 2 1.08 (−20.31 to 22.47) 0.92 0 0
   ≥ 126 mg/dL 4 3.33 (−4.1 to 10.75) 0.38 0 3 0.38 (−0.81 to 1.56) 0.53 12
  1. aNet change was expressed as weighted mean difference
  2. bThe I2 statistic was calculated by using Cochran’s test, and I2>50% was considered to indicate significant heterogeneity across studies
  3. * P for meta-analysis: P<0.05 was considered to indicate a significant effect of pomegranate on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations by using a random-effects model