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Table 3 Predicted change in d2 outcomes after intervention with fish (n = 137), meat (n = 148), n-3 supplements (n = 141)

From: Fatty fish intake and attention performance in 14–15 year old adolescents: FINS-TEENS - a randomized controlled trial

    Models adjusted for:
Crude Baseline scorea Baseline, dietary complianceb
d2 test of attention outcomesc Pre Mean ± SD Post Mean ± SD P-within d Coefficients (95% CI) P-value Coefficients (95% CI) P-value
Concentration performance (CP)
  Fish 142.4 ± 35.0 177.3 ± 36.8 <0.001 1 (ref.)   1 (ref.)  
  Meat 146.3 ± 31.5 178.5 ± 37.6 <0.001 −2.3 (−6.8, 2.2) 0.317 −3.4 (−8.2, 1.3) 0.159
  Supplement 143.8 ± 35.8 176.1 ± 40.7 <0.001 −2.4 (−6.9, 2.2) 0.306 −4.4 (−9.7, 1.0) 0.110
Total performance (TN-E)
  Fish 377.4 ± 73.5 453.3 ± 72.6 <0.001 1 (ref.)   1 (ref.)  
  Meat 379.1 ± 73.2 446.3 ± 77.0 <0.001 −7.9 (−17.4, 1.6) 0.103 −10.0 (−20.1, 0.0) 0.051
  Supplement 381.9 ± 77.4 446.5 ± 83.2 <0.001 −10.4 (−20.0, −0.7) 0.035 −14.1 (−25.5, −2.7) 0.015
Processing speed (TN)
  Fish 408.7 ± 80.3 482.1 ± 79.0 <0.001 1 (ref.)   1 (ref.)  
  Meat 404.0 ± 79.6 466.1 ± 80.4 <0.001 −11.8 (−23.3, −0.4) 0.042 −13.3 (−25.5, −1.2) 0.031
  Supplement 413.9 ± 83.9 472.8 ± 89.1 <0.001 −13.4 (−24.9, −1.8) 0.024 −16.0 (−29.6, −2.4) 0.022
  1. Pre and post data are presented as mean ± SD and difference between treatment groups presented as coefficients (95% CI). Abbreviations: SD Standard deviation, CI Confidence interval
  2. aBetween group differences analyzed using linear mixed effects model, with school class as random intercept
  3. bAdjusted for the equivalent outcome at baseline and for dietary compliance (i.e. the total intake of study meals or supplements) during the trial
  4. cAn increase in d2 outcomes indicates improvement
  5. dPaired-samples T-test for comparison within treatment groups from pre to post intervention