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Table 6 Association of each food intake pattern with hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and elevated LDL cholesterol

From: Food intake patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese adults: analyses from the 2012 National Health and nutrition survey, Japan

  Traditional Japanese Westernized Meat and fat
  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 p for trend Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 p for trend Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 p for trend
Men (N) 895 1061 1228 1509   1698 1127 909 959   947 1015 1185 1539  
Hypertension
 Prevalence: n (%) 445 (49.8) 546 (51.6) 738 (60.3) 918 (60.8)   959 (56.5) 633 (56.3) 517 (56.9) 538 (56.2)   611 (64.5) 596 (58.7) 650 (54.9) 790 (51.3)  
 ORa (95% CI) 1 (ref) 0.75 (0.59–0.95) 0.83 (0.65–1.04) 0.67 (0.53–0.84) 0.003 1 (ref) 0.93 (0.76–1.14) 0.86 (0.69–1.06) 0.84 (0.68–1.05) 0.169 1 (ref) 1.13 (0.88–1.45) 1.20 (0.94–1.53) 1.41 (1.11–1.79) 0.008
Diabetes
 Prevalence: n (%) 110 (12.3) 148 (14.0) 214 (17.5) 271 (18.0)   245 (14.4) 176 (15.6) 149 (16.4) 173 (18.1)   179 (18.9) 199 (19.6) 184 (15.5) 181 (11.8)  
 ORa (95% CI) 1 (ref) 0.69 (0.48–1.00) 0.90 (0.64–1.27) 0.80 (0.57–1.11) 0.300 1 (ref) 0.92 (0.69–1.23) 0.87 (0.64–1.19) 0.92 (0.68–1.25) 0.839 1 (ref) 1.62 (1.17–2.25) 1.52 (1.09–2.12) 1.38 (0.98–1.95) 0.021
Hypercholesterolemia
 Prevalence: n (%) 170 (19.0) 219 (20.7) 266 (21.7) 355 (23.5)   315 (18.6) 231 (20.5) 220 (24.2) 244 (25.5)   197 (20.8) 243 (23.9) 250 (21.1) 320 (20.8)  
 ORa (95% CI) 1 (ref) 1.01 (0.75–1.38) 0.94 (0.69–1.27) 0.94 (0.70–1.27) 0.853 1 (ref) 1.04 (0.79–1.36) 1.20 (0.90–1.60) 1.22 (0.92–1.62) 0.415 1 (ref) 1.45 (1.02–2.07) 1.34 (0.94–1.89) 1.64 (1.17–2.29) 0.036
Elevated LDL cholesterol
 Prevalence: n (%) 161 (18.0) 200 (18.9) 234 (19.1) 314 (20.8)   270 (15.9) 213 (18.9) 206 (22.7) 220 (23.0)   190 (20.1) 217 (21.4) 223 (18.8) 279 (18.1)  
 ORa (95% CI) 1 (ref) 0.94 (0.67–1.30) 0.78 (0.56–1.10) 0.78 (0.56–1.09) 0.281 1 (ref) 1.19 (0.88–1.62) 1.40 (1.02–1.92) 1.18 (0.85–1.64) 0.228 1 (ref) 1.11 (0.75–1.64) 1.07 (0.73–1.57) 1.28 (0.89–1.85) 0.462
Women (N) 1589 1716 1748 1628   999 1715 1932 2033   2116 1923 1595 1045  
Hypertension
 Prevalence: n (%) 439 (27.6) 697 (40.6) 778 (44.5) 835 (51.3)   461 (46.1) 727 (42.4) 782 (40.5) 779 (38.3)   1073 (50.7) 798 (41.5) 547 (34.3) 331 (31.7)  
 ORa (95% CI) 1 (ref) 1.05 (0.83–1.32) 1.13 (0.91–1.42) 1.03 (0.82–1.30) 0.507 1 (ref) 0.96 (0.75–1.23) 0.90 (0.70–1.14) 0.88 (0.69–1.11) 0.142 1 (ref) 1.05 (0.86–1.27) 1.00 (0.81–1.22) 1.03 (0.81–1.31) 0.840
Diabetes
 Prevalence: n (%) 100 (6.3) 141 (8.2) 141 (8.1) 171 (10.5)   97 (9.7) 146 (8.5) 146 (7.6) 164 (8.1)   207 (9.8) 177 (9.2) 102 (6.4) 67 (6.4)  
 ORa (95% CI) 1 (ref) 1.02 (0.70–1.48) 0.86 (0.59–1.26) 0.95 (0.66–1.38) 0.521 1 (ref) 0.78 (0.54–1.13) 0.71 (0.49–1.02) 0.75 (0.52–1.08) 0.061 1 (ref) 1.14 (0.85–1.55) 1.09 (0.77–1.53) 1.31 (0.88–1.96) 0.231
Hypercholesterolemia
 Prevalence: n (%) 375 (23.6) 497 (29.0) 588 (33.7) 585 (35.9)   255 (25.5) 482 (28.1) 586 (30.3) 722 (35.5)   721 (34.1) 617 (32.1) 443 (27.8) 264 (25.3)  
 ORa (95% CI) 1 (ref) 0.92 (0.74–1.14) 1.02 (0.83–1.26) 0.84 (0.67–1.06) 0.237 1 (ref) 1.13 (0.87–1.46) 1.33 (1.04–1.71) 1.80 (1.41–2.29) <0.001 1 (ref) 1.14 (0.94–1.38) 1.21 (0.99–1.48) 1.21 (0.96–1.53) 0.567
Elevated LDL cholesterol
 Prevalence: n (%) 302 (19.0) 426 (24.8) 491 (28.1) 514 (31.6)   218 (21.8) 418 (24.4) 505 (26.1) 592 (29.1)   631 (29.8) 516 (26.8) 373 (23.4) 213 (20.4)  
 ORa (95% CI) 1 (ref) 1.06 (0.82–1.37) 1.12 (0.87–1.45) 1.05 (0.80–1.38) 0.755 1 (ref) 1.19 (0.86–1.62) 1.43 (1.06–1.93) 1.75 (1.30–2.35) <0.001 1 (ref) 0.99 (0.78–1.24) 1.15 (0.91–1.46) 1.06 (0.80–1.40) 0.333
  1. a The logistic regression analysis adjusted for participant age, waist circumference, BMI, steps count, medication status (hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia), smoking and drinking status was applied
  2. OR (95% CI): Adjusted odds ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
  3. Significant P values <0.05 were shown in bold characters