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Table 4 Energy and nutrient intakes by gender, according to quartiles of the three food intake pattern scores

From: Food intake patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese adults: analyses from the 2012 National Health and nutrition survey, Japan

  Traditional Japanese   Westernized   Meat and fat  
Men Q1   Q2   Q3   Q4    Q1   Q2   Q3   Q4    Q1   Q2   Q3   Q4   
N 894   1059   1224   1509    1696   1125   908   957    947   1015   1185   1539   
/day Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Mean S.D. p for trend Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Mean S.D. p for trend Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Mean S.D. p for trend
Energy (kcal) 1954 411 2039 409 2117 403 2333 381 <0.001 2189 425 2080 427 2082 414 2166 416 <0.001 2000 393 2042 400 2109 401 2308 422 <0.001
Protein (g) 62.2 16.8 70.5 16.5 76.9 18.0 89.6 20.1 <0.001 77.6 22.1 75.3 20.8 75.3 19.8 78.2 18.9 0.001 73.4 21.5 73.2 19.6 75.3 20.3 82.2 20.3 <0.001
Fat (%energy) 24.9 7.6 23.8 6.9 23.2 6.8 22.6 6.6 <0.001 21.9 6.8 23.3 6.9 24.3 6.8 25.7 6.6 <0.001 19.6 6.3 22.0 6.3 23.9 6.2 26.5 6.9 <0.001
ω-3 fatty acids (g) 1.8 1.1 2.2 1.3 2.6 1.6 3.1 1.7 <0.001 2.7 1.7 2.5 1.6 2.3 1.5 2.3 1.4 <0.001 2.7 1.8 2.5 1.6 2.3 1.5 2.5 1.4 <0.001
ω-6 fatty acids (g) 9.2 4.3 9.5 4.2 9.8 4.3 10.9 4.7 <0.001 10.0 4.5 9.7 4.4 9.8 4.2 10.4 4.7 0.003 7.6 3.8 8.6 3.4 9.8 3.8 12.3 4.8 <0.001
Carbohydrates (%energy) 62.3 8.5 62.2 8.0 62.1 7.9 62.0 7.6 0.782 63.9 8.0 62.2 7.9 61.2 7.7 59.8 7.3 <0.001 65.7 7.8 63.6 7.4 61.8 7.2 59.2 7.8 <0.001
Dietary fiber (g) 10.5 3.7 13.3 4.1 15.8 4.6 21.7 7.0 <0.001 14.5 5.9 15.8 6.5 16.9 6.7 18.6 7.6 <0.001 16.7 7.6 15.8 6.3 16.0 6.7 16.0 6.5 0.019
Vitamin A (μgRAE) 386 520 485 638 540 633 730 832 <0.001 502 708 582 705 575 682 621 682 0.000 513 425 549 557 594 800 569 821 0.055
Vitamin D (μg) 4.8 6.6 7.0 7.8 9.2 9.0 12.1 11.1 <0.001 9.7 10.3 8.8 9.6 8.4 9.2 7.5 7.9 <0.001 11.5 10.9 9.8 10.1 8.3 9.1 6.8 7.8 <0.001
Vitamin B1 (mg) 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.7 1.0 0.6 1.1 0.7 <0.001 0.9 0.8 1.0 0.7 1.0 0.6 1.1 0.8 <0.001 0.9 0.7 1.0 0.8 1.0 0.8 1.1 0.7 <0.001
VitaminB2 (mg) 1.1 0.9 1.2 0.8 1.3 0.6 1.6 0.7 <0.001 1.2 0.8 1.3 0.7 1.3 0.6 1.5 0.8 <0.001 1.4 0.7 1.3 0.8 1.3 0.8 1.3 0.8 0.165
Vitamin B6 (mg) 1.0 0.9 1.2 1.0 1.4 0.7 1.8 1.1 <0.001 1.4 1.0 1.4 0.9 1.3 0.9 1.5 1.0 0.071 1.4 0.9 1.4 0.9 1.3 0.8 1.5 1.2 0.011
Vitamin B12 (μg) 4.6 5.3 6.4 7.9 7.6 7.3 9.8 8.9 <0.001 8.1 8.7 7.4 7.3 7.1 7.7 6.8 7.2 0.000 9.3 8.5 7.9 7.5 6.9 7.1 6.5 8.2 <0.001
Folate (μg) 208 91 275 138 325 117 438 165 <0.001 317 176 322 149 334 152 348 148 <0.001 350 171 325 140 320 144 322 176 <0.001
VitaminC (mg) 58.9 56.7 82.9 56.4 106.0 63.5 154.6 99.4 <0.001 91.2 63.6 102.5 74.1 116.2 83.0 133.7 110.6 <0.001 130.0 102.6 110.0 77.8 103.1 79.5 95.2 71.4 <0.001
Sodium (mg) 3482 1319 4021 1304 4553 1377 5568 1693 <0.001 4579 1677 4496 1687 4467 1560 4668 1674 0.032 4257 1618 4389 1602 4471 1535 4914 1746 <0.001
Potassium (mg) 1689 519 2124 495 2494 543 3303 837 <0.001 2338 810 2460 830 2615 912 2811 934 <0.001 2639 1012 2465 846 2476 859 2509 822 <0.001
Calcium (mg) 363 191 460 217 535 213 664 248 <0.001 450 213 512 229 571 249 638 273 <0.001 574 275 538 242 516 249 499 227 <0.001
Iron (mg) 5.9 1.9 7.4 2.1 8.5 2.1 10.9 3.0 <0.001 8.5 3.0 8.5 3.0 8.5 3.1 8.7 3.0 0.511 8.7 3.1 8.3 3.1 8.4 3.0 8.7 2.9 0.004
Women                            
N 1589   1715   1747   1628    999   1715   1932   2033    2116   1923   1595   1045   
Energy (kcal) 1542 320 1640 316 1744 309 1905 298 <0.001 1724 342 1661 339 1685 340 1764 325 <0.001 1637 335 1673 325 1738 328 1875 319 <0.001
Protein (g) 52.7 13.8 60.3 14.4 66.8 15.0 76.8 16.2 <0.001 63.7 17.3 63.1 18.1 63.8 17.0 65.9 16.6 <0.001 62.2 17.8 62.5 16.5 65.2 16.6 70.0 17.1 <0.001
Fat (%energy) 27.1 7.5 25.8 7.2 25.1 6.9 24.3 6.6 <0.001 23.1 6.9 24.5 7.1 26.1 7.1 27.2 6.9 <0.001 22.2 6.6 25.2 6.4 27.6 6.6 29.7 6.9 <0.001
ω-3 fatty acids (g) 1.5 1.0 1.9 1.2 2.2 1.3 2.6 1.4 <0.001 2.3 1.3 2.1 1.3 2.1 1.3 2.0 1.3 <0.001 2.2 1.4 2.0 1.3 2.0 1.2 2.1 1.2 <0.001
ω-6 fatty acids (g) 7.7 3.5 8.0 3.6 8.8 3.9 9.7 4.2 <0.001 8.7 3.9 8.2 3.8 8.5 4.0 8.8 3.9 <0.001 7.1 3.5 8.1 3.4 9.3 3.7 11.3 4.2 <0.001
Carbohydrates (%energy) 59.2 8.4 59.4 8.1 59.4 7.9 59.5 7.6 0.706 62.1 8.1 60.3 8.2 58.8 7.9 57.9 7.5 <0.001 62.6 7.8 59.8 7.4 57.3 7.5 55.3 7.7 <0.001
Dietary fiber (g) 10.3 3.3 13.4 3.9 16.4 4.3 21.7 6.2 <0.001 13.3 5.2 14.8 6.1 15.6 6.1 17.1 6.2 <0.001 15.7 6.4 15.2 6.0 15.3 5.9 15.7 6.3 0.025
Vitamin A (μgRAE) 362 335 472 396 586 686 714 596 <0.001 471 773 521 533 537 430 575 501 <0.001 513 417 543 528 548 579 542 705 0.165
Vitamin D (μg) 4.5 6.2 6.8 7.7 8.2 8.1 10.6 9.4 <0.001 7.8 8.3 8.0 8.7 7.6 8.2 7.0 7.8 0.001 9.0 8.9 7.5 8.1 7.0 8.0 5.7 6.7 <0.001
Vitamin B1 (mg) 0.7 0.5 0.8 0.5 0.9 0.5 1.0 0.5 <0.001 0.7 0.4 0.8 0.6 0.8 0.5 0.9 0.5 <0.001 0.8 0.6 0.8 0.4 0.9 0.5 1.0 0.6 <0.001
VitaminB2 (mg) 0.9 0.5 1.1 0.6 1.2 0.5 1.4 0.5 <0.001 1.0 0.5 1.1 0.6 1.2 0.6 1.2 0.6 <0.001 1.2 0.6 1.1 0.5 1.1 0.5 1.2 0.6 <0.001
Vitamin B6 (mg) 0.8 0.6 1.1 0.7 1.2 0.6 1.5 0.6 <0.001 1.1 0.7 1.2 0.7 1.2 0.7 1.2 0.6 0.012 1.2 0.7 1.1 0.7 1.1 0.5 1.2 0.7 <0.001
Vitamin B12 (μg) 3.8 4.3 5.5 5.7 6.4 6.2 7.9 6.5 <0.001 6.5 7.1 6.2 6.2 5.7 5.5 5.6 5.5 <0.001 7.1 6.7 5.7 5.7 5.3 5.2 4.9 5.5 <0.001
Folate (μg) 200 70 273 89 331 109 431 130 <0.001 288 129 302 134 311 128 324 133 <0.001 327 136 302 126 301 129 299 134 <0.001
VitaminC (mg) 64.3 50.0 95.9 58.6 121.9 69.2 167.6 90.3 <0.001 89.6 58.2 105.6 73.1 113.2 77.4 129.5 87.1 <0.001 131.6 89.5 109.2 74.1 100.4 66.1 99.4 69.9 <0.001
Sodium (mg) 2949 1016 3512 1072 4076 1144 4978 1413 <0.001 3967 1420 3824 1389 3816 1372 3955 1367 0.001 3653 1327 3810 1372 3957 1348 4372 1441 <0.001
Potassium (mg) 1596 450 2080 487 2493 531 3204 756 <0.001 2054 687 2241 794 2375 811 2554 826 <0.001 2425 854 2300 797 2300 769 2349 805 <0.001
Calcium (mg) 359 177 462 203 556 212 672 238 <0.001 401 180 466 230 529 232 594 245 <0.001 552 257 507 229 495 230 473 215 <0.001
Iron (mg) 5.4 1.5 6.9 2.1 8.2 2.0 10.2 2.7 <0.001 7.5 2.5 7.7 2.9 7.7 2.7 7.8 2.7 0.115 7.8 3.0 7.5 2.6 7.7 2.7 7.9 2.6 0.001
  1. For continuous variables, the general linear model was applied