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Table 4 Cohort studies on the association of AS consumption and risk of developing diabetes

From: Health outcomes of non-nutritive sweeteners: analysis of the research landscape

First author, publication year Study sample Number of participants Exposure Main outcome Direction of effect
Prospective cohort studies
Bhuphatiraju, 2013 [165] female nurses (age 30–55 y)
+ male health professionals (age 40–75 y)
74,749 + 39,059 ASB risk of type 2 diabetes
deKonig, 2011 [160] middle-aged (40–75 y) male health care providers 40,389 ASB incidence of type 2 diabetes
Fagherazzi, 2013 [162] women 66,118 ASB risk of type 2 diabetes ↑↑
Fagherazzi, 2017 [163] women 61,440 AS in packets or tablets risk of type 2 diabetes ↑↑
Palmer, 2008 [285] women (age 21–69 y) 43,960 diet soft drink risk of type 2 diabetes
Schulze, 2004 [217] healthy women 91,249 diet soft drink risk of diabetes
Sakurai, 2014 [286] men 2037 diet soda risk of type 2 diabetes ↑↑
Retrospective cohort studies
Armstrong, 1975 [166] bladder cancer patients
+ patients with other cancers
18,733 + 19,709 saccharin prevalence of diabetes
Case-control study
The Inter Act Consortium, 2013 [164] type 2 diabetes cases
+ controls
11,684 + 15,374 artificially sweetened soft drink incidence of type 2 diabetes
  1. Abbreviations: ASB artificially sweetened beverage consumption, y years, AS artificial sweeteners; ↑ means that a positive association was suggested in the study, but this was not significant; ↑↑ means a significant positive association; − means that there was no (significant) difference in the outcome between the intervention and control group