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Table 3 Characteristics of studies investigating the effects of non-nutritive sweeteners on dental outcomes

From: Health outcomes of non-nutritive sweeteners: analysis of the research landscape

First author, publication year Study sample (n) Intervention/Exposure Control Outcome Effect
Interventional studies: randomized controlled trials with parallel-group design
Beiswanger, 1998 [141] children (1818) sugar-free chewing gum containing AS and non-AS no intervention development of caries/caries prevalence decreased development of caries
Lopez de Bocanera, 1999 [142] both adults and children (32) a solution/drink with AS sugared solution/drink salivary or plaque pH no effect on pH
Interventional studies: randomized controlled trials with cross-over design
Brambilla, 2014 [143] adults (20) a solution/drink with stevioside sugared solution/drink salivary or plaque pH less acidogenic (increased) pH
Jawale, 2012 [144] adults (20) diet soft drink sugared solution/drink salivary or plaque pH less acidogenic (increased) pH
Manning, 1993 [145] adults (10) sugar-free chewing gum containing AS and non-AS sugared chewing gum salivary or plaque pH less acidogenic (increased) pH
Mendes de Santa, 2014 [146] adults (9) a solution/drink with a combination of NNS sugared solution/drink salivary or plaque pH less acidogenic (increased) pH
Mentes, 2001 [147] adults (29) a solution/drink with AS and non-AS sugared solution/drink salivary or plaque pH less acidogenic (increased) pH
Meyerowitz, 1996 [148] age group not described (14) a solution/drink with sucralose sugared solution/drink salivary or plaque pH less acidogenic (increased) pH
Park, 1993 [149] age group not described (5) sugar-free chewing gum containing sucralose/ ace K another NNS salivary or plaque pH no difference in pH
Park, 1995 [150] adults (8) sugar-free chewing gum containing AS or non-AS sugared chewing gum; no intervention salivary or plaque pH less acidogenic (increased) pH
Roos, 2002 [151] children (17) diet soft drink sugared solution/drink salivary or plaque pH less acidogenic (increased) pH
Steinberg, 1995 [152] age group not described (10) a solution/drink with sucralose sugared solution/drink salivary or plaque pH less acidogenic (increased) pH
Steinberg, 1996 [153] age group not described (12) a solution/drink with sucralose sugared solution/drink salivary or plaque pH less acidogenic (increased) pH
Zanela, 2002 [154] children (T: 200) a solution/drink with stevioside chlorhexidine gluconate amount of plaque formed less effective in decreasing the amount of plaque formed
Interventional studies: non-randomized controlled trials
Mühlemann, 1985 [155] adults (T:2) a solution/drink with aspartame sugared solution/drink salivary or plaque pH no effect on pH
Syrrakou, 1993 [156] age group not described (15) a solution/drink with sucralose sugared solution/drink salivary or plaque pH less acidogenic (increased) pH
Observational studies: case-control studies
Grenby, 1975 [287] adults (24) saccharin instead of sucrose sugared solution/drink amount of plaque formed decreased amount of plaque formed
Observational studies: cross-sectional studies
Serra-Majem, 1993 [288] age group not described (893) AS in regular diet development of caries/caries prevalence decreased development of caries
  1. Abbreviations: AS artificial sweetener, ace K acesulfame potassium, n total number of participants, non-AS a non-sugar sweetener other than NNS (e.g. sugar alcohols)