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Table 5 Urinary galactose concentrations after consumption of the study products

From: Effects of cow’s milk beta-casein variants on symptoms of milk intolerance in Chinese adults: a multicentre, randomised controlled study

Site Time Visit 1 (baseline) Visit 2 LSM difference
   A1 (n=300)a A2 (n=300)a A1 (n=300)a A2 (n=300)a Product (A2 vs. A1)
   Mean (mmol/L) SD Mean (mmol/L) SD Mean (mmol/L) SD Mean (mmol/L) SD Estimate SE P
Beijing Baseline 0.72 0.30 0.71 0.30 0.70 0.31 0.71 0.28    
3 h 0.84 0.33 1.06 0.39 0.81 0.31 1.07 0.42 0.243 0.034 <0.0001
Change from baseline 0.12 0.27 0.35 0.43 0.11 0.31 0.36 0.47 0.244 0.038 <0.0001
Guangzhou Baseline 0.72 0.32 0.73 0.33 0.73 0.38 0.70 0.38    
3 h 0.85 0.49 1.01 0.39 0.96 0.58 1.07 0.69 0.142 0.044 0.002
Change from baseline 0.13 0.40 0.28 0.32 0.23 0.46 0.37 0.59 0.144 0.045 0.002
Shanghai Baseline 0.71 0.26 0.71 0.25 0.72 0.28 0.72 0.21    
3 h 0.85 0.36 0.99 0.39 0.83 0.37 1.02 0.42 0.165 0.034 <0.0001
Change from baseline 0.14 0.37 0.28 0.41 0.12 0.31 0.30 0.38 0.165 0.036 <0.0001
All sites Baseline 0.72 0.29 0.72 0.30 0.72 0.32 0.71 0.30    
3 h 0.85 0.40 1.02 0.39 0.87 0.44 1.05 0.53 0.183 0.022 <0.0001
Change from baseline 0.13 0.35 0.30 0.39 0.15 0.37 0.34 0.49 0.184 0.023 <0.0001
  1. A1 conventional milk containing A1 and A2 β-casein, A2 milk containing A2 β-casein, LSM least-squares mean, SD standard deviation, SE standard error
  2. an=400 at 12 h (the VAS was not assessed at 12 h in Shanghai)