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Table 2 Characteristics of 635 subjects aged 69–71 years who participated in the SONIC Study, Japana

From: Association between dietary patterns and cognitive function among 70-year-old Japanese elderly: a cross-sectional analysis of the SONIC study

  Total (n = 635) Factor 1: Plant foods and fish Factor 2: Rice and miso soup Factor 3: Animal foods
Q1
(n = 158)
Q4
(n = 159)
P valueb Q1
(n = 158)
Q4
(n = 159)
P valueb Q1
(n = 158)
Q4
(n = 159)
P valueb
Sex (%)
 Men 46.0 72.8 23.9 <0.001 38.6 56.6 0.002 41.1 43.4 0.34
 Women 54.0 27.2 76.1   61.4 43.4   58.9 56.6  
Area of residence (%)
 Western-urban (Itami) 20.0 32.3 11.3 0.004 38.0 10.1 <0.001 21.5 21.4 0.22
 Western-rural (Asago) 26.0 23.4 32.1   17.1 40.3   36.1 22.6  
 Eastern-urban (Itabashi) 25.4 20.9 28.9   27.2 16.4   15.8 29.6  
 Eastern-rural (Nishitama) 28.7 23.4 27.7   17.7 33.3   26.6 26.4  
Education (years)
 < 10 25.5 34.2 18.2 <0.001 17.1 38.4 <0.001 22.8 23.9 0.26
 10–12 47.1 44.3 47.2   50.6 36.5   46.8 53.5  
 ≥ 13 27.4 21.5 34.6   32.3 25.2   30.4 22.6  
Frequency of going outdoors (times per week, %)
 < 1 5.2 8.9 2.5 <0.001 2.5 7.6 0.004 5.7 5.0 0.88
 1–4 29.0 34.8 25.2   24.1 31.5   31.0 32.1  
 ≥ 5 65.8 56.3 72.3   73.4 61.0   63.3 62.9  
Current smoker (%) 9.1 17.7 2.5 <0.001 8.2 14.5 0.03 7.6 11.3 0.22
Alcohol drinker (%) 37.0 60.1 15.1 <0.001 32.9 45.3 0.05 27.2 39.0 0.01
Energy intake (kcal/d) 1938 ± 569 1934 ± 636 1839 ± 492 0.05 1941 ± 614 1839 ± 530 0.06 2018 ± 565 1869 ± 606 0.14
BMI (kg/m2) 22.9 ± 3.0 23.1 ± 3.0 22.8 ± 3.1 0.58 22.9 ± 3.1 23.3 ± 3.5 0.08 22.6 ± 3.0 23.5 ± 3.7 0.02
GDS-5 score 0.88 ± 1.07 0.97 ± 1.05 0.73 ± 1.00 0.22 0.76 ± 1.01 1.02 ± 1.15 0.15 0.85 ± 1.01 1.01 ± 1.11 0.35
Hypertension (%) 65.4 70.9 62.3 0.05 63.3 66.0 0.43 59.5 71.7 0.03
Diabetes (%) 13.7 15.2 10.1 0.16 9.5 18.2 0.03 11.4 13.8 0.24
Cerebrovascular disease (%) 2.8 7.0 1.3 0.003 3.2 3.1 0.82 2.5 3.1 0.84
ApoE-ε4 allele carrier (%) 14.7 16.5 12.6 0.38 15.8 13.8 0.38 13.9 18.2 0.46
  1. BMI body mass index, GDS Geriatric Depression Scale
  2. aValues are means ± SD for continuous variables and percentages of subjects for categorical variables
  3. bA linear trend test and a Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test were used for continuous and categorical variables, respectively