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Table 2 The sport dependent food and nutrient intakes classified according to sport modality and country

From: Determinants of eating patterns and nutrient intake among adolescent athletes: a systematic review

Sport Country Categories Criteria of statistical comparison
Foods Sweets EI Prot CHO Fat Chol Fiber Vit Min
Athletics Belgium [58] Age = Pas, Po, R, WhiBr, Fr N/A N/A = = N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
B vs G ↑ Pas, Po, R, WhoBr, So
= Fr, Veg
N/A = N/A N/A N/A N/A
Cycling Running China [49] Cyclists vs runners N/A N/A = = A, C ↑Fe, Mg, Mn, Se, Zn
Judo France [38] Training: week 3 vs 1 N/A N/A = = = =
Judo Tunisia [50] Ramadan: Bef vs Dur vs After N/A N/A = = = = N/A N/A N/A N/A
Pentathlon Brazil [51] B vs G N/A N/A = = = = N/A N/A N/A N/A
Rugby France [46] Lu: Exerc vs Rugby vs Con N/A N/A = = = ↑ Exerc N/A N/A N/A N/A
Sn: Exerc vs Rugby vs Con N/A N/A = ↑ Con ↑ Exerc ↑ Rugby N/A N/A N/A N/A
Di: Exerc vs Rugby vs Con N/A N/A ↑ Exerc ↑ Rugby = = N/A N/A N/A N/A
Several sports Brazil [54] Endur sports vs other sports N/A N/A = = = N/A N/A N/A N/A
Several sports Germany [41] B vs G ↓ Vit fib foods
↑ An prod
N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Endur vs others ↑ Vit fib foods N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Nutrition plan ↑ Vit fib foods N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
On a diet N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Boarding student ↑ An prod N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Snack bar N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Skating US [47] B vs G N/A = N/A ↑B1, B3
= A, B2, B6, B9, B12, C, D, E,
↑Fe, P, Na, Zn
= Ca, K, Mg, I
Skating US [48] B: Bkf vs Lu vs Di vs Sn N/A N/A ↑ Di ↑ Di ↑ Di ↑ Lu ↑ Bkf ↑ Di ↑ Bkf: B9 ↑Di: Fe, Ca
G: Bkf vs Lu vs Di vs Sn N/A N/A ↑ Di ↑ Di = ↑ Lu ↑ Di ↑ Di ↑ Bkf: B9 ↑Di: Ca
↑ Bkf: Fe
Skating US [57] Pre- vs Comp vs Off-seasons N/A N/A = = = = = = ↑ Pre: B1, B2, B3, B6, B9, C, D, E ↑ Pre: Zn
= Fe, Na, I, Mg, P, Ca, K
Soccer France [56] Age N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A ↑ Ca, FE
Soccer Israel [44] Ramadan: Bef vs Dur N/A N/A = = = = N/A N/A N/A N/A
Soccer Italy [40] Training N/A N/A = = = = = = N/A N/A
Soccer Spain [42] Food preference = N/A = = = = = = N/A N/A
Soccer Spain [45] Age N/A = = = N/A = N/A N/A
Soccer Spain [52] Fixed menu vs Buffet-style N/A N/A = = = N/A ↑D, E
= A
↑Mg
= Ca
Soccer UK [39] Match vs Heavy vs Mod vs Rest N/A N/A N/A = = = N/A N/A N/A N/A
Swimming Greece [59] B vs G N/A N/A = N/A N/A N/A = N/A N/A
Training N/A N/A = = = = N/A N/A N/A N/A
Swimming Spain [43] B vs G ↓ Fr, Nuts
= Veg, Leg, Fish, Meat, Eggs, Cereals, DP
N/A = = = N/A ↑ B1, B2, B3, B6, E
= A, C, D, B12
↑ Ca, Mg, P, Fe, K, Na
= Zn
Volleyball Greece [53] Natl vs Champ players N/A N/A = = = = = A, B, C = Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn
  1. Abbreviations (alphabetical order):
  2. An prod Animal products, B Boys, G Girls, Bef Before, Bkf breakfast, Champ Championship, CHO Carbohydrate, Chol Cholesterol, Comp Competitive season, Con Control, Di Dinner, DP Dairy products, Dur During, EI Energy intake, Endur Endurance, Exerc Exercise, Fr Fruits, Leg Legumes, Lu Lunch, Min Mineral, Mod Moderate, Natl National, Pas Pasta, Po Potato, Pre Pre-season, Prot Protein, R Rice, Sn Snacks, So Soup, Veg Vegetables, Vit fib foods Vitamin and fiber-rich foods, Vit Vitamin, WhiBr White bread, WhoBr Wholegrain bread
  3. = means no significant differences; ↑ means statistical significant increase; ↓ means statistical significant decrease; N/A means not available
  4. The details of each study are presented in Table 1