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Table 1 The design of human trials for estimating food patterns and nutrient intakes among adolescent athletes distributed by sport and country

From: Determinants of eating patterns and nutrient intake among adolescent athletes: a systematic review

Sport Country Sample size Sex Age Study design Outcome: dietary assessment Evaluated determinants
Athletics Belgium [58] 60 M: 51.7% 12−18 Longitudinal (3-year follow-up) NU/FO: 7-day FR Age, Sex
Cycling
Running
China [49] 24 M: 100% Cyclists: 15.3 ± 0.7
Runners: 15.5 ± 1.3
Cross-sectional NU: 7-day FR Sport modality
Judo France [38] 9 F: 100% 15−16 Cross-sectional (3 and 1 week before competition) NU: 7-day FR Training (time)
Judo Tunisia [50] 15 M: 100% 18 ± 1 Cross-sectional (before, during, and after Ramadan) NU: 3-day FR Ramadan
Pentathlon Brazil [51] 56 M: 60.7% 10−18 Cross-sectional NU: 1-day FR, FFQ Sex
Rugby France [46] 14 M: 100% 15−16 Cross-sectional
(control session, rugby session and exercise session)
NU: 1-day weighed food Training (session)
Several sports Brazil [54] 326 M: 62.6% 11−14 Cross-sectional NU: 3-day FR, Food diary Sport modality
Several sports Germany [41] 1138 M: 56.1% 14−18 Cross-sectional FO: Questionnaire Sex, Sport modality, School,
Place to eat, Nutrition
Skating US [47] 28 M: 42.9% M: 16 ± 1.5
F: 14 ± 1.6
Cross-sectional NU: 4-day FR Sex
Skating US [48] 94 M: 48.9% M: 17.2 ± 3.0
F: 15.0 ± 2.4
Cross-sectional NU: 3-day FR Meals
Skating US [57] 18 F:100% 14−16 Longitudinal
(9 months, pre-, competitive, and off-season)
NU: 3-day FR Training (time)
Soccer France [56] 180 M: 100% 13−16 Longitudinal (3-year follow-up) NU: 5-day FR Age
Soccer Israel [44] 19 M: 100% 14−16 Cross-sectional (before and during Ramadan) NU: 2-day FR Ramadan
Soccer Italy [40] 43 M: 100% 15−17 Cross-sectional (two evaluations 3 months apart) NU: 4-day FR Training (time)
Soccer Spain [42] 22 M:100% 14−16 Cross-sectional NU: 6-day weighed food
FO: FFQ
Food preference
Soccer Spain [45] 57 M: 100% Team
A: 14 ± 0.3
B: 15 ± 0.2
C: 16.6 ± 0.6
Cross-sectional NU: 3-day FR Age
Soccer Spain [52] 62 M: 100% 13−19 Cross-sectional NU: 5-day weighed food Menu settings
Soccer UK [39] 10 M: 100% 15.4 ± 0.3 Cross-sectional (4 training days) NU: 7-day FR,
NU: 7-day weighed food
Training (session)
Swimming Greece [59] 9 M: 45.5% M: 18.4 ± 1.2
F: 17.3 ± 1.7
Longitudinal (4 evaluations in 8 months) NU: 3-day FR Sex
Training (time)
Swimming Spain [43] 36 M: 61.1% M: 15.5 ± 0.4
F: 14.6 ± 0.4
Cross-sectional NU: 3-day FR
FO: FFQ
Sex
Volleyball Greece [53] 65 F: 100% 14−19 Cross-sectional NU: 3-day FR Training (categories)
  1. NU nutrient intake, FO food intake, FR food record, FFQ food frequency questionnaire, US United States, UK United Kingdom