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Table 4 Association between meat consumption and both obesity and high blood pressure in South Korean children and adolescents

From: Red meat and chicken consumption and its association with high blood pressure and obesity in South Korean children and adolescents: a cross-sectional analysis of KSHES, 2011–2015

n = 136,739
Aged 9, 12, and 15 y
Consumption of meat (servings/wk)c
<1 1–2 3–5 >5
Obesitya, ORs (95% CI)b
Model 1, multivariabled 1.62*** (1.39–1.91) 1.42*** (1.28–1.59) 1.16** (1.04–1.29) Reference
Model 2, model 1 plus BPe 1.50*** (1.27–1.76) 1.36*** (1.21–1.52) 1.13* (1.01–1.26) Reference
Model 3, model 2 plus dietary patternsf 1.43*** (1.21–1.69) 1.30*** (1.16–1.46) 1.12* (1.00–1.25) Reference
Model 4, model 3 plus activitiesg 1.44*** (1.21–1.70) 1.30*** (1.16–1.46) 1.12* (1.00–1.25) Reference
Systolic HBPa, ORs (95% CI)b
Model 1, multivariabled 1.43*** (1.16–1.75) 1.23** (1.08–1.41) 1.10 (0.96–1.26) Reference
Model 2, model 1 plus BMIe 1.29** (1.04–1.60) 1.14 (0.99–1.31) 1.06 (0.92–1.22) Reference
Model 3, model 2 plus dietary patternsf 1.31** (1.06–1.62) 1.15* (1.00–1.32) 1.06 (0.92–1.22) Reference
Model 4, model 3 plus activitiesg 1.30** (1.05–1.62) 1.15* (1.00–1.31) 1.05 (0.92–1.21) Reference
Diastolic HBPa, ORs (95% CI)b
Model 1, multivariabled 1.37** (1.11–1.69) 1.27*** (1.11–1.45) 1.19** (1.04–1.36) Reference
Model 2, model 1 plus BMIe 1.28* (1.03–1.59) 1.20* (1.04–1.38) 1.16* (1.16–1.33) Reference
Model 3, model 2 plus dietary patternsf 1.26* (1.02–1.55) 1.20** (1.04–1.38) 1.17* (1.02–1.33) Reference
Model 4, model 3 plus activitiesg 1.25* (1.02–1.54) 1.19** (1.04–1.37) 1.16* (1.01–1.33) Reference
  1. aOutcome variables: High blood pressure (HBP) or Obesity
  2. b*P < 0.05; **P ≤ 0.01; ***P ≤ 0.001, using binary multiple logistic regression analysis for adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI)
  3. cExplanatory variable: meat consumption (servings per wk)
  4. dAdjusted for sex, age, height, and regions (17 cities and provinces in South Korea)
  5. eAdditional adjustment for BP (mm Hg) when modelling obesity and for BMI (kg/m2) when modelling HBP
  6. fAdditional adjustment for milk (quartiles), fruit (quartiles), vegetable (quartiles), and breakfast (quartiles)
  7. gAdditional adjustment for physical activities and internet/games use