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Table 5 Comparison of dietary intakes and dietary total antioxidant capacity between the women of the lowest tertile (P1A1), the intermediate tertile (P2A2) and highest tertile (P3A3) for both protein intake and dietary total antioxidant capacitya

From: Diet with a combination of high protein and high total antioxidant capacity is strongly associated with low prevalence of frailty among old Japanese women: a multicenter cross-sectional study

  P1A1 (n = 273) P2A2 (n = 238) P3A3 (n = 247) P b
Median IQR Median IQR Median IQR
Energy intake, kcal/d 1709 1423 - 2077 1575 1297 - 1905 1700 1405 - 2032 0.004
Food intakec, g/d
 Rice 368.7 292.7 - 423.5 277.4 227.4 - 353.4 207.0 147.0 - 256.0 <0.0001
 Noodles 43.3 26.3 - 70.9 48.1 32.8 - 67.0 43.9 23.3 - 75.5 0.25
 Bread 27.0 15.0 - 54.1 27.3 12.4 - 58.7 27.3 12.8 - 56.5 0.64
 Pulses 58.1 39.7 - 74.7 77.6 57.2 - 108.0 102.2 71.2 - 123.1 <0.0001
 Potatoes 40.4 25.7 - 66.9 50.1 32.0 - 76.4 57.8 40.2 - 97.8 <0.0001
 Confectioneries 65.0 45.8 - 95.7 56.8 39.4 - 79.6 43.1 23.5 - 62.8 <0.0001
 Fruits 65.5 40.2 - 113.8 97.9 65.8 - 142.3 127.6 79.1 - 186.8 <0.0001
 Total vegetables 227.1 172.7 - 288.8 289.8 239.4 - 360.2 404.7 297.0 - 511.0 <0.0001
 Green tea 170.9 41.6 - 380.0 428.3 369.6 - 607.0 562.2 379.6 - 609.4 <0.0001
 Black and oolong tea 9.1 −3.2 - 23.7 14.7 3.0 - 41.0 25.6 5.4 - 117.0 <0.0001
 Coffee 21.3 1.9 - 117.6 59.5 14.0 - 148.5 157.0 105.0 - 365.7 <0.0001
 Soft drinks 7.9 −2.2 - 21.6 7.6 −1.0 - 16.1 4.5 −4.6 - 15.7 0.03
 Fish and shellfish 68.6 49.8 - 83.9 95.7 80.2 - 111.3 142.3 113.5 - 178.0 <0.0001
 Meats 41.5 28.3 - 55.5 57.7 43.5 - 75.4 63.7 43.6 - 83.4 <0.0001
 Eggs 32.1 21.7 - 48.2 37.1 26.3 - 54.6 45.8 29.6 - 65.7 <0.0001
 Dairy products 103.4 37.5 - 153.0 128.9 69.7 - 173.5 155.8 91.2 - 199.0 <0.0001
Nutrient intakec
 Protein, g/d 61.6 56.8 - 64.8 73.1 70.1 - 75.5 86.8 82.1 - 93.4 <0.0001
 Animal protein, g/d 31.6 26.2 - 36.1 42.0 38.9 - 45.4 56.4 50.8 - 61.9 <0.0001
 Plant protein, g/d 29.6 27.7 - 31.6 30.3 28.0 - 33.3 31.1 28.5 - 33.9 <0.0001
 Fat, g/d 44.2 38.9 - 49.9 50.5 45.4 - 55.5 55.0 48.6 - 61.1 <0.0001
 Marine origin n-3 polyunsaturated fatd, g/d 0.80 0.60 - 1.02 1.13 0.92 - 1.37 1.63 1.31 - 2.09 <0.0001
 Carbohydrate, g/d 267 254 - 280 243 230 - 254 219 204 - 234 <0.0001
 Total dietary fiber, g/d 11.7 9.7 - 13.2 13.3 11.9 - 15.3 16.4 14.0 - 19.3 <0.0001
 β-carotene, μg/d 2882 2100 - 3902 3861 2992 - 5242 5246 3948 - 7704 <0.0001
 Vitamin D, μg/d 12.0 8.8 - 14.9 17.9 15.1 - 21.1 28.2 21.4 - 34.9 <0.0001
 Vitamin C, mg/d 104 82 - 132 148 123 - 177 188 158 - 225 <0.0001
 Sodium, mg/d 3872 3427 - 4278 4269 3900 - 4658 4981 4525 - 5465 <0.0001
 Potassium, mg/d 2129 1871 - 2465 2754 2526 - 3051 3564 3194 - 4005 <0.0001
 Calcium, mg/d 476 393 - 562 623 539 - 691 820 708 - 951 <0.0001
 Magnesium, mg/d 219 198 - 236 266 253 - 292 342 312 - 378 <0.0001
 Iron, mg/d 7.0 6.2 - 7.7 8.9 8.1 - 9.6 10.9 9.8 - 12.1 <0.0001
Dietary TACc, mmol TE/d 13.0 10.0   15.3 20.1 18.9   21.7 27.5 24.9   31.8 <0.0001
  1. IQR interquartile range, P1A1 the lowest tertile for both total protein intake and dietary TAC group, P2A2 the intermediate tertile for both total protein intake and dietary TAC group, P3A3 the highest tertile for both total protein intake and dietary TAC group, SD standard deviation, TAC total antioxidant capacity, TE Trolox equivalent
  2. a Values are median and interquartile range
  3. b Values were compared by Kruskal-Wallis test
  4. c Energy-adjustment was performed according to the residual method
  5. d Sum of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid