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Table 4 Multivariate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for frailty compared to no frailty based on a combination of total protein and dietary total antioxidant capacity among 2108 old Japanese womena

From: Diet with a combination of high protein and high total antioxidant capacity is strongly associated with low prevalence of frailty among old Japanese women: a multicenter cross-sectional study

  Total proteinb, g/d  
P1 (Lowest) P2 (Intermediate) P3 (Highest) P Protein for trend
≤67.6 67.6–78.3 >78.3  
Dietary TACb, mmol TE/d
 A1 (Lowest) ≤17.3 (n = 273) (n = 229) (n = 200)  
  Frailtyc, % 38.5 23.6 28.0  
  Model 1d 1.00 (ref) 0.42 (0.27, 0.65) 0.67 (0.43, 1.05) 0.03
 A2 (Intermediate) 17.3–23.1 (n = 209) (n = 238) (n = 256)  
  Frailtyc, % 27.3 24.4 19.9  
  Model 1d 0.62 (0.39, 0.96) 0.55 (0.36, 0.86) 0.47 (0.29, 0.76) 0.22
 A3 (Highest) >23.1 (n = 220) (n = 236) (n = 247)  
  Frailtyc, % 17.3 14.4 11.3  
  Model 1d 0.47 (0.29, 0.76) 0.33 (0.20, 0.53) 0.27 (0.16, 0.44) 0.03
P TAC for trend 0.001 0.56 0.002  
  1. CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio, ref reference, TAC total antioxidant capacity, TE Trolox equivalent
  2. aValues are ORs (95% CIs), unless otherwise indicated
  3. bProtein intake and dietary TAC were energy-adjusted according to the residual method
  4. cFrailty score (0–5) was defined as the sum of poor physical function (two points), exhaustion (one point), low physical activity (one point), and unintentional weight loss (one point). A score of ≥ 3 indicated frailty
  5. dAdjusted for age (y, continuous), body mass index (kg/m2, continuous), residential block (Hokkaido and Tohoku, Kanto, Hokuriku and Tokai, Kinki, Chugoku and Shikoku, or Kyushu), size of residential area (city with a population ≥ 1 million, city with a population < 1 million, or town and village), living alone (yes or no), current smoking (yes or no), alcohol drinking (yes or no), dietary supplement use (yes or no), history of chronic disease (any of stroke, myocardial infarction, hypertension, diabetes, or chronic rheumatism; yes or no), depression symptoms (yes or no), and energy intake (kcal/d, continuous)