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Table 3 Multivariate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for frailty compared to no frailty by tertile of dietary total antioxidant capacity and protein among 2108 old Japanese womena

From: Diet with a combination of high protein and high total antioxidant capacity is strongly associated with low prevalence of frailty among old Japanese women: a multicenter cross-sectional study

  T1 (Lowest) (n = 702) T2 (Intermediate) (n = 703) T3 (Highest) (n = 703) P for trend
Total proteinb, g/d ≤67.6 67.6–78.3 >78.3  
 Frailtyc, % 28.5 20.8 19.2  
 Model 1d 1.00 (ref) 0.61 (0.46, 0.80) 0.64 (0.48, 0.84) 0.001
 Model 1e + dietary TACf 1.00 (ref) 0.62 (0.46, 0.82) 0.66 (0.49, 0.87) 0.003
Animal proteinb, g/d ≤36.9 36.9–48.4 >48.4  
 Frailtyc, % 25.9 22.3 20.2  
 Model 1e 1.00 (ref) 0.78 (0.59, 1.03) 0.75 (0.57, 1.00) 0.04
 Model 1e + dietary TACf 1.00 (ref) 0.76 (0.57, 1.01) 0.75 (0.56, 0.99) 0.04
 Model 1e + plant proteinf 1.00 (ref) 0.75 (0.57, 1.00) 0.68 (0.51, 0.92) 0.01
 Model 1e + plant protein + dietary TACf 1.00 (ref) 0.75 (0.56, 1.00) 0.71 (0.53, 0.96) 0.03
Plant proteinb, g/d ≤28.6 28.6–32.0 >32.0  
 Frailtyc, % 25.6 21.3 21.5  
 Model 1e 1.00 (ref) 0.78 (0.59, 1.03) 0.86 (0.65, 1.14) 0.30
 Model 1e + dietary TACf 1.00 (ref) 0.82 (0.62, 1.09) 0.99 (0.74, 1.33) 0.91
 Model 1e + animal proteinf 1.00 (ref) 0.72 (0.54, 0.97) 0.76 (0.57, 1.03) 0.08
 Model 1e + animal protein + dietary TACf 1.00 (ref) 0.77 (0.58, 1.03) 0.89 (0.65, 1.21) 0.42
Dietary TACb, mmol TE/d ≤17.3 17.3–23.1 >23.1  
 Frailtyc, % 30.6 23.6 14.2  
 Model 1e 1.00 (ref) 0.80 (0.61, 1.04) 0.51 (0.38, 0.69) <0.0001
 Model 1e + total proteinf 1.00 (ref) 0.82 (0.63, 1.08) 0.52 (0.39, 0.71) <0.0001
 Model 1e + animal proteinf 1.00 (ref) 0.80 (0.61, 1.05) 0.51 (0.38, 0.68) <0.0001
 Model 1e + plant proteinf 1.00 (ref) 0.79 (0.60, 1.04) 0.51 (0.37, 0.69) <0.0001
  1. CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio, ref reference, TAC total antioxidant capacity, TE Trolox equivalent
  2. aValues are ORs (95%CIs), unless otherwise indicated
  3. bProtein intakes and dietary TAC were energy-adjusted according to the residual method
  4. cFrailty score (0–5) was defined as the sum of poor physical function (two points), exhaustion (one point), low physical activity (one point), and unintentional weight loss (one point). A score ≥3 were classified as frailty
  5. eAdjusted for age (y, continuous), body mass index (kg/m2, continuous), residential block (Hokkaido and Tohoku, Kanto, Hokuriku and Tokai, Kinki, Chugoku and Shikoku, or Kyushu), size of residential area (city with a population ≥1 million, city with a population <1 million, or town and village), living alone (yes or no), current smoking (yes or no), alcohol drinking (yes or no), dietary supplement use (yes or no), history of chronic disease (any of stroke, myocardial infarction, hypertension, diabetes, or chronic rheumatism; yes or no), depression symptoms (yes or no), and energy intake (kcal/d, tertiles)
  6. fFurther adjusted for total protein (g/d, tertiles), animal protein (g/d, tertiles), plant protein (g/d, tertiles), or dietary TAC (mmol/TE, tertiles)