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Table 1 Basic characteristics of 2108 old Japanese women categorized with and without frailtya

From: Diet with a combination of high protein and high total antioxidant capacity is strongly associated with low prevalence of frailty among old Japanese women: a multicenter cross-sectional study

  Total (n = 2108) No frailtyb (n = 1627) Frailtyb (n = 481) P c
Median, IQR or n (%) Median, IQR or n (%) Median, IQR or n (%)
Age, years 74 71 - 78 74 70 - 77 77 74 - 81 <0.0001
Body height, cm 150.0 147.0 - 154.0 150.2 147.7 - 154.0 150.0 145.0 - 153.0 <0.0001
Body weight, kg 51.0 46.0 - 56.0 51.0 46.1 - 56.0 51.0 45.0 - 57.0 0.71
Body mass index, kg/m2 22.5 20.6 - 24.7 22.4 20.5 - 24.4 22.8 20.8 - 25.4 0.02
Residential block, n (%) 0.38
 Hokkaido and Tohoku 193 (9.2) 142 (8.7) 51 (10.6)  
 Kanto 526 (25.0) 404 (24.8) 122 (25.4)  
 Hokuriku and Tokai 510 (24.2) 410 (25.2) 100 (20.8)  
 Kinki 262 (12.4) 199 (12.2) 63 (13.1)  
 Chugoku and Shikoku 342 (16.2) 265 (16.3) 77 (16.0)  
 Kyushu 275 (13.1) 207 (12.7) 68 (14.1)  
Size of residential area, n (%) 0.26
 City with a population ≥1 million 274 (13.0) 204 (12.5) 70 (14.6)  
 City with a population <1 million 1598 (75.8) 1247 (76.6) 351 (73.0)  
 Town and village 236 (11.2) 176 (10.8) 60 (12.5)  
Living alone, n (%) 0.30
 No 1759 (83.4) 1365 (83.9) 394 (81.9)  
 Yes 349 (16.6) 262 (16.1) 87 (18.1)  
Marital status, n (%) <0.0001
 Single 4 (0.2) 3 (0.2) 1 (0.2)  
 Married 1275 (60.5) 1035 (63.6) 240 (49.9)  
 Widowed 777 (36.9) 546 (33.6) 231 (48.0)  
 Separated 52 (2.5) 43 (2.6) 9 (1.9)  
Education, n (%) 0.04
  ≤ Junior high school and others 977 (46.4) 732 (45.0) 245 (50.9)  
 High school 933 (44.3) 733 (45.1) 200 (41.6)  
  ≥ Some college 198 (9.4) 162 (10.0) 36 (7.5)  
Current smoking, n (%) 0.002
 No 2054 (97.4) 1595 (98.0) 459 (95.4)  
 Yes 54 (2.6) 32 (2.0) 22 (4.6)  
Alcohol drinking, n (%) <0.0001
 No 1695 (80.4) 1278 (78.6) 417 (86.7)  
 Yes 413 (19.6) 349 (21.5) 64 (13.3)  
Dietary supplement use, n (%) 0.0002
 No 1475 (70.0) 1106 (68.0) 369 (76.7)  
 Yes 633 (30.0) 521 (32.0) 112 (23.3)  
Physical activity, total metabolic equivalents-hours/d 38.1 34.3 - 43.2 39.6 35.9   44.1 32.9 30.9   36.4 <0.0001
History of chronic diseased, n (%) <0.0001
 No 1059 (50.2) 864 (53.1) 195 (40.5)  
 Yes 1049 (49.8) 763 (46.9) 286 (59.5)  
Depression symptomse, n (%) <0.0001
 No 1617 (76.7) 1363 (83.8) 254 (52.8)  
 Yes 491 (23.3) 264 (16.2) 227 (47.2)  
  1. IQR interquartile range
  2. aValues are medians and interquartile ranges or numbers of subjects (%)
  3. bFrailty score (0–5) was defined as the sum of poor physical function (two points), exhaustion (one point), low physical activity (one point), and unintentional weight loss (one point). A score of ≥3 was classified as indicating frailty
  4. cContinuous values were compared by Mann–Whitney signed-rank test and proportions for categorical values were compared by the chi-square test
  5. dHistory of chronic disease was defined as having any of the following self-reported disease: stroke, myocardial infarction, hypertension, diabetes, or chronic rheumatism
  6. eDepression symptoms were defined as a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression score ≥16