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Table 2 Pooled relative risk (RR) of hypertension and RR per 100 mg/d increment in dietary magnesium intake

From: Dose-response relationship between dietary magnesium intake, serum magnesium concentration and risk of hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

  Highest versus Lowest dietary magnesium intake Per 100 mg/day increment in dietary magnesium intake
Number of studies.a RR(95%CI) I2 (%) p for heterogeneity Number of studies. a RR(95%CI) I2 (%) p for heterogeneity
All studies 8 0.92(0.86,0.98) 0 0.48 7 0.95(0.90,1.00) 39.30 0.13
Location  
 USA 7 0.92(0.86,0.99) 5.40 0.39 7 0.95(0.90,1.00) 39.30 0.13
 Other area 1 0.83(0.49,1.39) - - 0 - - -
Gender  
 Male 2 0.93(0.73,1.19) 0 0.70 2 0.81(0.64,1.03) 0 0.85
 Female 4 0.94(0.82,1.07) 49.40 0.12 4 0.96(0.89,1.03) 62.60 0.05
 Bothb 2 0.86(0.70,1.07) 0 0.87 1 0.96(0.88,1.06) - -
Follow-up (year)  
  ≥ 8 2 0.90(0.83,0.98) 0 0.72 2 0.91(0.86,0.97) 4.40 0.31
  < 8 6 0.94(0.83,1.07) 14.70 0.32 5 0.98(0.92,1.03) 23.90 0.26
Adjusted alcohol  
 Yes 6 0.92(0.84,1.00) 19.60 0.29 5 0.94(0.89,1.00) 53.00 0.07
 No 2 0.98(0.76,1.27) 0 0.97 2 1.00(0.88,1.14) 0 0.41
Adjusted calcium  
 Yes 1 0.78(0.62,0.98) - - 1 0.90(0.82,0.99) - -
 No 7 0.94(0.87,1.00) 0 0.64 6 0.96(0.91,1.02) 40.50 0.14
Adjusted sodium  
 Yes 2 0.91(0.83,0.99) 0 0.73 1 0.92(0.87,0.97) - -
 No 6 0.93(0.83,1.05) 18.30 0.30 6 0.96(0.90,1.03) 34.10 0.18
Adjusted potassium  
 Yes 2 0.81(0.67,0.98) 0 0.52 2 0.93(0.86,1.00) 0 0.32
 No 6 0.94(0.87,1.01) 0 0.52 5 0.96(0.89,1.03) 52.20 0.08
Adjusted fiber  
 Yes 3 0.84(0.72,0.97) 0 0.74 3 0.92(0.85,0.99) 6.20 0.35
 No 5 0.94(0.88,1.02) 0 0.44 4 0.97(0.91,1.05) 53.30 0.09
Adjusted diabetes  
 Yes 2 0.91(0.84,1.00) 0 0.66 2 0.96(0.85,1.09) 50.60 0.16
 No 6 0.92(0.82,1.04) 19.80 0.28 5 0.95(0.89,1.02) 40.40 0.15
Adjusted family history of hypertension  
 Yes 2 0.93(0.69,1.26) 0 0.59 1 1.06(0.88,1.28) - -
 No 6 0.92(0.84,1.01) 19.30 0.29 6 0.94(0.90,1.00) 41.30 0.13
Adjusted education  
 Yes 2 0.90(0.74,1.10) 0 0.56 2 0.94(0.72,1.22) 67.00 0.08
 No 6 0.93(0.84,1.02) 18.20 0.30 5 0.95(0.90,1.00) 41.50 0.15
Adjusted exercise  
 Yes 4 0.91(0.84,0.98) 0 0.93 3 0.93(0.84,1.03) 38.70 0.20
 No 4 0.94(0.78,1.12) 45.90 0.14 4 0.97(0.91,1.03) 33.50 0.21
Adjusted cholesterol  
 Yes 3 0.90(0.83,0.98) 0 0.89 2 0.91(0.86,0.97) 4.40 0.31
 No 5 0.95(0.82,1.10) 28.30 0.23 5 0.98(0.92,1.03) 23.90 0.26
Adjusted saturated fat intake  
 Yes 3 0.90(0.83,0.98) 0 0.89 2 0.91(0.86,0.97) 4.40 0.31
 No 5 0.95(0.82,1.10) 28.30 0.23 5 0.98(0.92,1.03) 23.90 0.26
Adjusted smoking  
 Yes 3 0.90(0.83,0.98) 0 0.89 2 0.91(0.86,0.97) 4.40 0.31
 No 5 0.95(0.82,1.10) 28.30 0.23 5 0.98(0.92,1.03) 23.90 0.26
  1. aIf a study reported results involving different populations (male and female) but did not report the overall results, the results for each population were regarded as different studies
  2. b“Both” means that the original study did not report effect estimates by gender separately