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Table 1 Characteristic of the included studies with regard to magnesium and risk of hypertension

From: Dose-response relationship between dietary magnesium intake, serum magnesium concentration and risk of hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

Source Study Case/Sample size Gender, age range (years) Follow-up (years) Exposure assessment Outcome ascertainment Recruitment time Hypertension definition (SBP/DBP mmHg) Adjustments Study quality
Witteman [25] 1989,USA NHS 3275/58218 Female, 34–59 4 Validated 61-item FFQ Validated self-reported 1980–1984 ≥140/90 Age, Quetelet’s index, energy intake, alcohol use, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and fiber intake. 7
Ascherio [26], 1992,USA HPFS 1248/30681 Male, 40–75 4 Validated 131-item FFQ Validated self-reported 1986 ≥140/90 Age, Quetelet’s index, alcohol use, magnesium, potassium, fiber, and energy. 6
Ascherio [27], 1996,USA NHS 2526/41541 Female, 38–63 4 Validated 126-item and 61 item FFQ Validated self-reported 1984–1988 ≥140/90 Age, BMI, alcohol use, and energy. 7
Peacock [28], 1999,USA ARIC 1597/7731 Female/Male, 45–64 6 61 item FFQ Self-reported/AHTs treatment 1987–1989 ≥140/90 Age, race, field center,BMI, WHR, diabetes, education, family history of hypertension, leisure activity score, hormone replacement therapy (women),baseline SBP and energy intake. 7
Song [30], 2006,USA WHS 8544/28349 Female, ≥45 9.8 131-item FFQ Validated self-reported/AHTs treatment/physician diagnosis 1992–1993 ≥140/90 Age, treatment, family history of MI before 60, exercise, alcohol use, postmenopausal hormone use, multivitamin use, smoking, energy, BMI, history of diabetes, cholesterol, saturated fat intake, glycemic load, sodium intake. 7
He [29] 2006,USA CARDIA 932/4637 Female/Male,18–30 15 Validated FFQ Self-reported 1985–1986 ≥130/85 Age, gender, race, education, smoking, physical activity, family history of diabetes, alcohol use, BMI, and intake of fiber, polyunsaturated fat, saturated fat, carbohydrates, and energy. 8
Khan [31], 2010, USA FHS 551/2520 Female/Male middle-age 8 Standard colorimetrc assay Physician diagnosis/AHTs treatment 1979–1982 ≥140/90 Age,sex,BMI,diabetes,SBP,total/HDL cholesterol ratio,smoking,hemoglobin, albumin,GFR,calcium,potassium. 8
Joosten [32], 2013, Netherlands PREVEND 1172/5511 Female/Male,28–75 7.6 Roche diagnostics Self-reported/AHTs treatment 1997–1998 ≥140/90 Age, sex, BMI, smoking, parental history of hypertension, alcohol intake, study design, and plasma levels of sodium, potassium, and calcium. 8
Huitrón [33], 2015, Mexico HWCS 274/1378 Female/Male,20–87 7 Validated 116-item FFQ Self-reported/physician diagnosis 2004–2006 ≥140/90 Age, sex, time, physical activity, use of postmenopausal hormone, multivitamin use and alcohol, smoking, intake of saturated fat intake, cholesterol, sodium, and energy glycemic load,, history of diabetes, BMI and family history of hypertension. 7
  1. Abbreviations: NHS Nurse’s Health Study, HPFS Health Professionals Follow-up Study, ARIC Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, WHS Women’s Health Study, CARDIA Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults, HWCS Health Workers Cohort Study, FHS Framingham Heart Study, PREVEND Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease study, FFQ food-frequency questionnaire, BMI body mass index, MI myocardial infarction, SBP systolic blood pressure, WHR waist-to-hip ratio, HDL high density lipoprotein, GFR glomerular filtration rate, AHTs antihypertensive medications