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Table 4 Breath hydrogen excretion, subjective appetite ratings and voluntary energy intake (lunch), following the evening meals1

From: Effects of whole grain rye, with and without resistant starch type 2 supplementation, on glucose tolerance, gut hormones, inflammation and appetite regulation in an 11–14.5 hour perspective; a randomized controlled study in healthy subjects

  WWB RFB RFB/RKB RFB + RS RFB/RKB + RS
   2  2  2  2
Hydrogen, Fasting3 (ppm) 24.5 ± 5.3 48.3 ± 4.5 97*** 50.8 ± 9.0 107*** 55.3 ± 11.5 126*** 50.2 ± 6.6 105***
Hydrogen, Mean 0–210 min (ppm) 16.2 ± 2.93 40.4 ± 4.03 150*** 35.9 ± 5.53 122*** 37.6 ± 4.33 133*** 34.8 ± 4.54 115***
Satiety, Fasting3 (mm) 29.2 ± 4.5 35.0 ± 5.3 20 37.9 ± 5.9 30 29.6 ± 4.3 2 33.3 ± 6.1 14
Satiety, AUC 0-210 min (mm · min) 9590 ± 9305 11640 ± 9505 21** 11390 ± 11106 19 10070 ± 9305 5 10400 ± 9106 8
Hunger, Fasting3 (mm) 61.2 ± 4.4 52.5 ± 6.4 −14 51.7 ± 6.0 −15 58.6 ± 5.7 −4 58.3 ± 5.7 −5
Hunger, AUC 0–210 min (mm · min) 10400 ± 9505 8800 ± 8807 −15* 8680 ± 10704 −17* 10090 ± 9105 −3 9340 ± 8406 −10
Desire to eat, Fasting3 (mm) 67.1 ± 5.0 62.9 ± 5.8 −6 58.7 ± 5.7 −13 68.3 ± 5.5 2 63.4 ± 6.7 −6
Desire to eat, AUC 0–210 min (mm · min) 11360 ± 10205 9070 ± 10305 −20** 9750 ± 11704 −14 11110 ± 10205 −2 11450 ± 10906 1
Energy intake, Lunch3 (kcal) 689 ± 87 657 ± 74 −5 644 ± 73 −7 649 ± 61 −6 667 ± 70 −3
  1. 1 Data are presented as means ± SEM. *Different from WWB P < 0.05; **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 (ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test). 2 The percentage change is calculated as the difference from the WWB. 3 n = 21, 4 n = 18, 5 n = 20, 6 n = 17, 7 n = 19 healthy subjects. RFB rye flour bread, RFB/RKB 50/50 rye flour and rye kernel bread, + RS added resistant starch, AUC area under curve