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Table 3 B-glucose, s-insulin, s-FFA, p-PYY and s-IL-6 concentrations 11–14 h following test- and reference evening meals1

From: Effects of whole grain rye, with and without resistant starch type 2 supplementation, on glucose tolerance, gut hormones, inflammation and appetite regulation in an 11–14.5 hour perspective; a randomized controlled study in healthy subjects

  WWB RFB RFB/RKB RFB + RS RFB/RKB + RS
   2  2  2  2
Glucose, Fasting3 (mmol/l) 5.4 ± 0.1 5.3 ± 0.1 −1 5.4 ± 0.1 0 5.4 ± 0.1 1 5.3 ± 0.1 −2
Glucose, iAUC 0–120 min3 (mmol · min/l) 153.0 ± 13.2 123.6 ± 10.8 −19 140.2 ± 13.8 −8 138.8 ± 15.0 −9 112.1 ± 10.6 −27*
Glucose, iPeak 3 (mmol/l) 2.9 ± 0.2 2.6 ± 0.2 −11 2.8 ± 0.2 −3 2.8 ± 0.2 −2 2.4 ± 0.2 −17†
Insulin, Fasting3 (nmol/l) 0.034 ± 0.002 0.038 ± 0.003 13 0.037 ± 0.003 10 0.036 ± 0.003 6 0.033 ± 0.002 −3
Insulin, iAUC 0–120 min3 (nmol · min/l) 9.88 ± 1.21 8.50 ± 0.91 −14 9.52 ± 1.13 −4 9.40 ± 1.00 −5 7.86 ± 0.78 −21*
Insulin, iPeak3 (nmol · min/l) 0.16 ± 0.02 0.16 ± 0.02 0 0.16 ± 0.02 0 0.17 ± 0.02 1 0.15 ± 0.02 −8
FFA, Fasting (mmol/l) 0.65 ± 0.043 0.54 ± 0.044 −17* 0.54 ± 0.044 −17† 0.54 ± 0.043 −17* 0.54 ± 0.033 −17*
PYY, Fasting4 (ng/ml) 0.50 ± 0.09 0.54 ± 0.10 7 0.53 ± 0.09 6 0.53 ± 0.10 6 0.59 ± 0.09 17*
PYY, Mean 0 + 120 min4 (ng/ml) 0.50 ± 0.09 0.53 ± 0.10 5 0.52 ± 0.09 5 0.53 ± 0.09 6 0.58 ± 0.09 15**
IL-6, Fasting (pg/ml) 1.08 ± 0.213 0.81 ± 0.063 −25 0.93 ± 0.123 −15 1.00 ± 0.124 −7 0.82 ± 0.093 −25
IL-6, Mean 0 + 180 (pg/ml) 1.33 ± 0.224 1.04 ± 0.155 −22 1.02 ± 0.144 −23 1.20 ± 0.165 −9 1.02 ± 0.124 −23
  1. 1 Data are presented as means ± SEM. *Different from WWB P < 0.05; **P = 0.01, †P = 0.057 (ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test). 2 The percentage change is calculated as the difference from the WWB. 3 n = 21, 4 n = 20, 5 n = 19 healthy subjects. RFB rye flour bread, RFB/RKB 50/50 rye flour and rye kernel bread, + RS added resistant starch, iAUC incremental area under curve, iPeak incremental peak