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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants according to sex-specific quartiles of the dietary inflammatory indexa

From: Dietary inflammatory index and risk of first myocardial infarction; a prospective population-based study

  Men
(n = 5284)
Women
(n = 1600)
  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 P b Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 P b
n 1266 1319 1299 1400   407 422 404 427  
DII      <0.001      <0.001
 Mean –1.38 0.43 1.60 2.90   –1.14 0.69 1.81 2.93  
 SD 0.83 0.37 0.33 0.53   0.87 0.38 0.29 0.47  
 Min –4.16 –0.25 1.05 2.16   –3.86 0.00 1.29 2.31  
 Max –0.25 1.05 2.16 5.04   0.00 1.29 2.30 4.31  
Age at baseline (Y)      0.079      0.331
 Mean 53.4 54.1 53.9 54.0   54.9 54.3 54.7 54.0  
 SD 7.47 7.19 7.36 7.38   7.68 8.17 7.40 8.28  
Postsecondary education (%) 20.6 18.9 13.8 12.9 <0.001 22.4 16.1 16.3 10.8 <0.001
 Missing (n) 11 18 17 9   8 7 9 4  
Smoking status (%)      <0.001      <0.001
 Daily smokers 15.4 16.8 22.6 28.8   15.7 22.3 22.0 34.2  
 Ex-smokers 30.5 31.2 30.1 29.6   19.9 19.9 17.8 20.1  
 Non-smokers 52.8 50.8 45.7 40.6   63.1 55.9 58.4 45.4  
 Missing (n) 16 17 20 15   5 8 7 1  
Physical activity (%)c      <0.001      <0.001
 Medium 47.7 45.6 44.5 37.7   54.8 43.4 42.9 40.5  
 High 17.5 13.2 11.1 8.6   12.0 11.0 9.9 11.3  
 Missing (n) 18 7 9 9   8 9 9 10  
BMI (kg/m2) (%)      0.944      0.017
 <25 37.4 36.8 37.7 36.5   45.7 45.5 50.0 44.0  
 25–29.9 51.1 50.3 49.9 50.7   32.9 35.3 36.9 40.7  
 >30 11.5 12.9 12.3 12.8   21.4 19.2 13.1 15.2  
 Missing (n) 1 1 3 0   0 0 0 0  
Diabetes (%) 8.2 7.5 6.2 5.9 0.054 7.1 8.1 5.4 4.9 0.211
 Missing (n) 0 1 0 0   0 1 0 0  
Systolic BP (mmHg)      0.005      0.673
 Mean 132.7 134.1 134.6 135.2   135.3 134.4 133.7 133.8  
 SD 17.6 18.1 18.2 18.4   21.2 19.7 20.1 20.7  
 Missing (n) 20 18 19 8   4 5 7 7  
S-cholesterol (mmol/L)      0.003      0.740
 Mean 5.96 6.03 6.04 6.13   6.20 6.18 6.11 6.16  
 SD 1.20 1.23 1.20 1.24   1.32 1.30 1.27 1.21  
 Missing (n) 7 7 8 12   1 3 0 1  
Lag time (Y)d      0.498      0.142
 Mean 6.80 6.81 6.41 6.43   6.88 7.79 8.14 6.96  
 SD 4.05 3.87 4.00 4.08   3.88 3.96 4.17 4.26  
  1. Q quartile, DII Dietary inflammatory index, SD Standard deviation, Y years, BMI Body mass index, BP, Blood pressure, S-cholesterol, Serum cholesterol, Lag time time from baseline to MI
  2. aQuartile cutoffs for DII based on the controls
  3. bP-values determined by ANOVA for continuous variables or Chi-Square tests for categorical variables
  4. cRefers to recreational physical activity
  5. dYears from health examination/recruitment to myocardial infarction